OECD Economic Surveys are periodic reviews of member and non-member economies. Reviews of member and some non-member economies are on a two-year cycle; other selected non-member economies are also reviewed from time to time. Each Economic Survey provides a comprehensive analysis of economic developments, with chapters covering key economic challenges and policy recommendations addressing these challenges.
Greece has rebounded well from the COVID-19 crisis, generating strong employment growth. Increasing investments and exports, government support measures, implementation of the Greece 2.0 Recovery and Resilience Package and the reforms of the past decade have been supporting the economy. However, headwinds from surging energy prices and uncertainty following Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine have slowed the recovery.
© Vivooo/ShutterstockGreece Economic Survey 2023
Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine has darkened the short-term economic outlook for Finland and increased the urgency of transitioning away from fossil energy. The Finnish economy is likely to contract over coming quarters, weighed down by high inflation, tightening monetary conditions and curtailment of Russian gas supplies to trading partner economies, but to recover in 2024 as these headwinds pass.
© Vincent KoenFinland Economic Snapshot
The Irish economy weathered the COVID-19 pandemic and is coping well with the repercussions from Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine. While the fiscal position is currently strong, with buoyant revenues, a number of pressures arising from ageing, housing, health, and climate change create fiscal risks in the longer term.
© Vincent KoenIreland Economic Snapshot
What is the role of the EDRC?
The Economic Surveys and the work of the Economic and Development Review Committee (EDRC) have evolved since the creation of the OECD in 1961 when the Surveys focused on short-term macroeconomic developments. Currently, the focus is mostly on policies having a potential to improve the economy’s long-run performance and people’s living standards. This involves a wide range of policy areas including labour markets, competition, innovation, human capital, financial markets, sustainable development, environmental policies, social security, corruption, taxation, health care and public spending. The hallmark of Economic Surveys is to clarify links between structural policies in these areas and macroeconomic performance.
The committee has one member from each OECD country plus the European Commission, and the final Survey reflects the OECD countries’ joint conclusions, being published under the responsibility of the whole committee. Two EDRC members lead each examination and often draw in experts from their governments or Delegations. The examined country is represented by a delegation of high-level officials from across government departments.
What are the key features of an Economic Survey?
Each Economic Survey starts with an Executive Summary and Key Recommendations followed by the Key Policy Insights and 1 or 2 in-depth thematic chapters. The purpose of the Executive Summary is to summarise the overall analysis underpinning the key recommendations. The objective of the key recommendations is to provide the examined country with a clear set of constructive actions to improve their economy, based on robust analytical evidence. The Key Policy Insights then build/establish the strategic and analytical links between the various key macroeconomic and structural topics. Lastly, the in-depth thematic chapter(s) provide detailed discussion on selected structural topics.
How is the Economic Survey prepared?
The draft Economic Survey is prepared by the OECD secretariat starting about one year before the ﬁnal Survey is published. The work is carried out by a team consisting generally of two economists, one statistician and one assistant, in co-operation with additional specialists, and supervised by a head of division. The desk interacts with the cross-country analysis undertaken by the Economics Department and other parts of the OECD. This ensures that the Economic Surveys present state-of-the-art policy analysis on a wide range of topics. At an early stage, the team from the OECD secretariat visits the country on structural mission and meets with a wide range of government ofﬁcials, academics, social partners and other experts to collect information. Later on, the same team but now headed by a senior ECO official goes on the policy mission to discuss the secretariat’s tentative conclusions with top policy makers, such as the Minister of Finance, top government ofﬁcials, the central bank and also labour unions and business confederations.
How often is an Economic Survey published?
An Economic Survey is published every 18-24 months for each OECD member country and for key partner countries such as Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and South Africa. There are also Surveys of the European Union and the Euro Area. Other countries Surveys are published on a one-off basis for countries such as Bulgaria, Romania, Tunisia and South East Asian countries - Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam.
How is the Survey launched?
Once the draft Economic Survey has gone through the EDRC meeting and incorporated the views expressed during the examination it is ready for publication. Usually the public release takes place about 6 to 8 weeks after the EDRC meeting. The Survey is most often released by the Secretary General, the Chief Economist or a Director at a public press event in the member country. At this event, the Survey’s key policy recommendations are presented to key stakeholders including top government ofﬁcials, journalists and academics. The Secretary General, the Chief Economist or the Director also meet with top government officials on a bilateral basis to discuss the insights from the Survey. Sometimes after the public press event, a technical seminar is held by the Secretariat to present the Survey’s ﬁndings in more detail. On the day of the release, an OECD webpage with a link to the Economic Survey and related material will be available.
What is the role of the EDRC Bureau and extended bureau?
The EDRC bureau consists of the EDRC Chair and the two Vice Chairs while the extended bureau consists of the bureau and six additional committee members. The members of the bureau and extended bureau are elected annually. The bureau and extended bureau meets to discuss the ongoing business of the Committee and to prepare proposals for the EDRC. Usually meetings takes place a couple of times per year.