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Publications & Documents


  • 11-February-2022

    English

    Teacher professional identity - How to develop and support it in times of change

    Promoting and supporting the development of strong professional identities in teachers is relevant to teachers, policy makers and the research community. The benefits of examining Teacher Professional Identity (TPI) relate to success for students in their learning, long-term empowerment of teachers in their professional work, and support for effective policy development. This paper provides a scan and examination of the research and the OECD international data sets to propose a TPI Development and Outcome model and consider implications for practice, policy and research. Increased attention to understanding and developing individual and collective TPI provides a positive and feasible approach in a time of change .
  • 7-February-2022

    English

    How has educational attainment influenced the labour market outcomes of native- and foreign-born adults?

    The labour market outcomes for native- and foreign-born adults during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic vary considerably across countries – with inequalities in employment even falling in some cases compared to 2017. In contrast with the 2008 financial crisis, greater educational attainment does not seem to have had a clear protective effect against labour market adversities during the pandemic. This is most likely due to countries’ quick action to mitigate the economic impact of the pandemic and the high involvement of workers with low qualifications to maintain essential services during prolonged confinement periods. However, in some countries, inequalities in earnings were widening before the pandemic and unless appropriate measures are put in place, the economic effects of the current crisis may have a long-lasting negative effect on the integration of immigrants.
  • 31-January-2022

    English

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) of newcomer and refugee students - Beliefs, practices and implications for policies across OECD countries

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) strengthens students’ abilities to regulate their emotions, thoughts, and behaviours and to interact successfully with others. There are an array of important social and emotional skills (SES): goal-setting, working to one’s potential, resilience, creativity, perseverance, problem solving, and caring about the welfare of others, among them. All students need SEL, but newcomer and refugee students may have particular challenges requiring SES. The beginning of this paper examines the current situation of refugee and newcomer students in OECD countries, SEL, its frameworks and skills and how they apply to newcomer and refugee students. The paper concludes with an examination of SEL policies and practices for newcomer and refugee students in OECD countries.
  • 31-January-2022

    English

    Multi-stakeholder approach for better integration of refugee students - Stakeholder engagement in the practice-research-policy transfer in refugee education policy

    Ample research has shown the importance of collaboration between practitioners, researchers, and policy makers to ensure holistic, inclusive, and effective policy making, particularly in the field of refugee education. Many countries, however, still face challenges in engaging with stakeholders during all the stages of the practice – research – policy transfer in the context of refugee education in a meaningful and effective way. The unique and distinct needs of refugee students in education systems require extensive collaboration among schools, service providers, and (refugee) communities to collect evidence whether and how refugee students’ needs are met. Hence, a multi-stakeholder approach or 'whole-of-a-society' approach is one of the prerequisites for designing inclusive refugee education policies. This paper highlights the importance of stakeholder engagement at all stages of the practice – research – policy transfer, and maps key stakeholders in refugee education in Europe.
  • 28-January-2022

    English

    Holistic refugee and newcomer education in Europe - Mapping, upscaling and institutionalising promising practices from Germany, Greece and the Netherlands

    Education is one of the most important fields to promote the integration of refugee and newcomer children and youths in host countries. However, holistic education for refugee and newcomers has so far not been established into mainstream education systems in European countries. Projects and pilot programmes have developed across Europe to test holistic approaches. Some of them have started very recently as a response to the arrival of high numbers of refugees and newcomers, while others have been established for a longer period and have started to expand. This paper first provides an overview of key research gaps in refugee education. It then provides a mapping of promising holistic education practices in Europe, with a focus on Germany, Greece and the Netherlands. Based on this, the paper explores key conditions to upscale and institutionalise promising practices of holistic refugee and newcomer education.
  • 27-January-2022

    English

    The social and economic rationale of inclusive education - An overview of the outcomes in education for diverse groups of students

    Since UNESCO’s Salamanca Declaration in 1994, inclusive education has progressively attracted attention in international debates around education policy. While some evidence exists on the positive impact that inclusive education reforms can have on the academic and personal outcomes of diverse students – and in particular of students with special education needs – limited information is available on the economic sustainability of such reforms. Starting from the literature on the correlations between education and individuals’ life outcomes, this paper reviews the existing evidence on the potential benefits and costs of inclusive education reforms. Specifically, the paper discusses the evidence on the shortcomings of current education settings for diverse groups of students – with specific sections on students with special education needs; immigrant and refugee students; ethnic groups, national minorities and Indigenous peoples; gifted students; female and male students; and LGBTQI+ (which stands for ‘lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex’) students. It highlights the individual and societal costs deriving from the low academic, social and emotional outcomes of these students and the socio-economic costs these yield for societies. Where possible, the paper also presents evidence on the effects of inclusive education reforms on diverse student groups.
  • 24-January-2022

    English

    How Learning Continued during the COVID-19 Pandemic - Global Lessons from Initiatives to Support Learners and Teachers

    This report brings together 45 of the education continuity stories that were jointly documented by the OECD, the World Bank, Harvard’s Global Education Innovation Initiative and HundrED during the first wave of school closures related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It covers a variety of different examples on how governments and non-governmental organisations quickly responded to school closures to implement a strategy for learners around the world to continue to study. While often based on the use of digital solutions, those solutions target specific solutions aimed at academic learning, socio-emotional support, teacher professional development, etc. The book covers examples from low, middle and high income countries on all continents and draws some lessons of these fast-paced responses to reimagine a post-pandemic education across the world.
  • 18-January-2022

    English

    Trends Shaping Education 2022

    Did you ever wonder what the impact of climate change will be on our educational institutions in the next decade? What does it mean for schools that our societies are becoming more individualistic and diverse? Trends Shaping Education is a triennial report examining major economic, political, social and technological trends affecting education. While the trends are robust, the questions raised in this book are suggestive, and aim to inform strategic thinking and stimulate reflection on the challenges facing education. This 2022 edition covers a rich array of topics related to economic growth, living and working, knowledge and power, identity and belonging and our physical world and human bodies and interactions. It includes a specific focus on the impact of COVID‑19 on global trends, and new futures thinking sections inviting readers to reflect on how the future might differ from our current expectations. This book is designed to give policy makers, researchers, educational leaders, administrators and teachers a robust, non-specialist source of international comparative trends shaping education, whether in schools, universities or in programmes for older adults. It will also be of interest to students and the wider public, including parents.
  • 18-January-2022

    English

    Expanding and steering capacity in Finnish higher education - Thematic policy brief

    This policy brief is the second in a series of thematic policy briefs in the OECD's Resourcing Higher Education Project. This project provides a shared knowledge base for OECD member and partner countries on effective policies for higher education resourcing through system-specific and comparative policy analysis. To meet the skill needs of the Finnish economy, its government has set policy targets with respect to educational attainment and globally mobile learners, and backed those targets with additional resources to aid higher education institutions in accomplishing them. At the same time, Finnish policymakers are engaged in an assessment of their higher education landscape, examining whether the distribution of responsibilities among its higher education institutions is effectively coordinated and adapted to national innovation needs. This policy brief assesses the progress of initiatives to expand the capacity of the higher education system and increase its attractiveness to globally mobile learners, and takes stock of Finland’s institutional landscape in light of international experience.
  • 12-January-2022

    English

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