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Looking for green engineers - insights from PISAThe fight against climate change cannot be won without significant changes in knowledge and skills that people bring to their work.

Career ready? Preparing young people for working life Data-driven guidance: new OECD work on teenage indicators of career readiness

From career readiness to career optionality 
A video interview with Julia Freeland Fisher that covers our ongoing work on indicators of teenage career readiness with a focus on practical approaches to supporting young people.  

How well are students prepared to enter the world of work? Dream Jobs? looks at data from the 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests and earlier tests to explore teenagers’ thinking about their future careers.

How Estonia is delivering online career guidance during the coronavirus crisis Remote career guidance is here to stay in Estonia – with or without crisis. They enable flexible participation without sacrificing quality.

Can nursing thrive in the age of the coronavirus? What young people think about the profession How do young people see the nursing profession?

School-to-work transitions during coronavirus: Lessons from the 2008 Global Financial Crisis Why are young people so vulnerable during economic downturn? and what can be done?  

A Class, Apart: The career aspirations of the COVID Generation on the eve of the pandemic What do we know about the career ambitions of the COVID generation on the eve of the pandemic – and does this provide comfort or concern?

Career ready? Preparing young people for working life In this tough environment, it is timely to reflect on what education institutions are doing to help give students confidence that they will be able to contend for available jobs.

Young people and jobs: What can we do to help in 2021 and beyond? Many worry about the generation that is now leaving education. Not only is it facing a deeply hostile labour market, it is also the most highly educated and most ambitious generation in history to attempt the transition from education to employment.

Career readiness in the pandemic How can we tell if young people are likely to benefit from the career guidance and development that they engage in? We can do this through analysis of national longitudinal databases. Following thousands of individuals from childhood to adulthood, we can find associations between attitudes and experiences and better outcomes in adulthood. 



Career readiness in the pandemic Hong Kong January 21

New OECD project for 2021: Career readiness in the pandemic December 2020



Why career guidance has never been so important?


The OECD gratefully acknowledges the support of our partners in this work: the JPMorgan Chase Foundation, the Jacobs Foundation (Switzerland) and the National Center on Education and the Economy (United States).

Career education that works: an economic analysis using the British Cohort Study (2017) by Elnaz Kashefpakdel and Chris Percy.

Wage premiums at age 26 linked to teenage participation in school-managed career talks undertaken at age 14-16 with premiums increasing with the number of career talks undertaken and student perceptions of their utility. 

Employer engagement in British secondary education wage earning outcomes experienced by young adults (2014) by Anthony Mann and Chris Percy.

Wage premiums at age 19-24 linked to teenage participation in school-managed episodes of employer engagement (short work placements, career talks, mentoring, enterprise activities). 

Socialised social capital? The capacity of schools to use careers provision to compensate for social capital deficiencies among teenagers (2018) by Anthony Mann, Elnaz Kashefpakdel and Chris Percy.

Wage premiums at age 26 linked to teenage social networks and participation in school-managed career talks wherein premiums are greatest for (typically more disadvantaged) young people who do not anybody who will help them get a job when they leave school.

Early occupational aspirations and fractured transitions a study of entry into NEET status in the UK (2010) by Scott Yates, Angel Harris, Ricardo Sabates and Jeremy Staff.

NEET (Not in Education Employment and Training) outcomes at age 16-19 linked to career uncertainty and misalignment at age 16. 

Working it out: career guidance and employer engagement (2018) by Pauline Musset and Lucia Kureková (OECD).

Drawing on PISA data to illustrate how teenage career aspirations are distorted by gender, socio-economic background and migrant status


Policy Papers

Investing in Career Guidance

(July 2021) A short leaflet jointly published by Cedefop, the European Commission, European Training Foundation, International Labor Organisation, OECD and UNESCO explaining the unprecedented importance of career guidance and what makes for effective practice.

Investir dans l'orientation professionnelle

Career guidance policy and practice in the pandemic

(December 2020) The results of an international survey of career guidance policy officials and practitioners exploring the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Résultats Clés

Resultados clave


Examples of Practice

Australia - St. Norbert College, Ocupationally-focused Work Experience and Student-led Career Fairs: enabling career thinking early, and ensuring that career education is made available from the whole school community.

Canada - Centres of Excellence in New Brunswick: engaging employers in the funding and virtual delivery of information and experiential learning opportunities in strategically important economic sectors.

Canada - Future Ready Learning K-12: enabling career thinking early, and ensuring that career education is made available from the whole school community.

Croatia - Public Employment Services & Job Search Preparation: providing easy access to information and guidance regarding the search for employment.

Finland - Access to Guidance Counsellors and One-Stop Guidance Centres: facilitating easy access to trustworthy and understandable labour market information, and ensuring that advice is made available from guidance professionals.

Finland - School-to-Work Group Method: enabling structured critical exploration of labour market entry through employer engagement to enhance transitions into work and psychological well-being.

France - Examples of Jobs and Careers in Science Class: bringing learning to life through integrating career learning into classroom teaching.

Korea - The Free Learning Semester Programme: supporting the flexible delivery of career education, and ensuring that employers, employees, and workplace experiences are systematically involved in provision.

New Zealand - Massey High School Building Academy: providing opportunities for young people to examine and explore the relationship between education and employment.

New Zealand - SpeedMeet: helping secondary students to meet and engage with potential employers in the skilled trades and service industry.

New Zealand - WE3 Continuum and Activities: enabling understanding of the relationship between classroom and workplace through critical exploration and engagement with the labour market.

United Kingdom - Inspiring the Future: helping young people to develop informed, critical perspectives about the relationship between education and employment through an efficient national delivery model.

United Kingdom - Primary Futures: empowering young people to begin career thinking early, actively seeking to broaden career-related knowledge and interests, and challenge stereotypical thinking.

United States - Ethnographies of Work: enabling student agency and challenging inequality through critical investigation of the labour market.

United States - World of Work: assisting young people to analyse their individual strengths and interests through engagement with the working world in order to help students develop better understanding of career options and how they can be achieved.