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Risk management of chemicals

Case studies of substitution and methodology

 

Case studies are descriptions of alternatives assessments that have been conducted by manufacturers, academic institutions, NGOs or government bodies. Learn more about the methodology for the OECD Substitution and Alternatives Assessment Case Study Repository.

Additional compilations of completed alternatives assessments include (but are not limited to) the following resources:

• The SUBSPORTPLUS web portal, a compilation of case studies to support companies in fulfilling substitution requirements within EU legislation.
• The Interstate Chemical Clearinghouse (IC2) Alternatives Assessment Library.
• ECHA’s repositories of ‘analysis of alternatives’ performed in the context of REACH applications for authorisation, and in the context of REACH restriction proposals.

 

Alteration of Manufacturing Processes to Reduce Exposure to Titanium Tetrachloride

American Industrial Hygiene Association
No date  Titanium tetrachloride (7550-45-0) and more... Hybrid car batteries    

A company that makes a proprietary product used in the manufacturing of hybrid car batteries redesigned its production process to eliminate the use of titanium tetrachloride as a catalyst and remove seven manual handling operations. These steps helped reduce operator and community exposures to the materials used in the manufacture of the proprietary product.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard Exposure Technical Feasibility Cost/Benefit & Availabilty  

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Alternatives to Methylene Chloride in Paint and Varnish Strippers: Availability of Safer Alternatives & Requirements for Meeting Stage 1 of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulations

BizNGO

2015 Methylene chloride (DCM) (75-09-2) and more...  Paint/varnish strippers    

This analysis models the perspective of a manufacturer of a methylene chloride-based paint stripper for consumers that seeks compliance with the California Safer Consumer Products regulations. The category of paint strippers that is the subject of this alternatives analysis includes both consumer and professional uses. The report provides an example of the flow of a California Safer Consumer Products Regulation-type alternatives analysis, specifically the scoping and hazard assessment step as specified for Stage 1 submissions. The report identifies 11 alternatives to methylene chloride and uses the GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals version 1.2 hazard assessment method for assessing chemical hazard.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard Exposure  

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Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPEs) in All-Purpose Cleaners

BizNGO

2013 Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE) and more...  All-purpose cleaners    

Due to the environmental toxicity of its breakdown product, nonylphenol (NP), the surfactant NPE requires replacement. This assessment weighs eight alternatives to NPE, considering their environmental impacts, public health impacts, environmental fate, materials and resource consumption impacts (included under multimedia life cycle impacts), physical chemical hazards, multimedia life cycle impacts, product function and performance impacts, and economic impacts. GreenScreen® methodology is used to compare the chemical hazards of the alternatives, with lower benchmark scores indicating chemicals of high concern and higher scores indicating preferred chemicals.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard

Exposure

 Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

Lifecycle Impacts

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The Use of Trichloroethylene as Extraction Solvent for Bitumen in Asphalt Analysis

Blue Cube Germany Assets GmbH & Co. KG (formerly DOW Deutschland Anlagengesellschaft mbH)

No date Trichloroethylene (TCE) (79-01-6; 201-167-4) and more...  Asphalt analysis, and more...    

This analysis discusses nine alternative solvents and two methods to replace the use of trichloroethylene, a chemical subject to Authorisation under REACH (substance in Annex XIV of REACH), in asphalt analysis. Each identified potential alternative is evaluated on the basis of technical and economic feasibility, health concerns, and availability. German manufacturers, distributors, and researchers from universities that deal with asphalt analysis were consulted in the process of completing this assessment.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 

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The Use of Chromium Trioxide for a Pre-treatment Step in the Electroplating Process

Grohe AG

2015 Chromium (VI) trioxide (1333-82-0; 215-607-8) and more...  Electroplating; Etching plastic substrates    

In this assessment, GROHE has completed an analysis of three alternatives to this chemical for use in the etching pre-treatment process of its sanitary plastic products. The study evaluates the technical feasibility of these potential alternative substances and technologies, as well as the impact on GROHE's business and profitability of possibly switching to the use of the most viable candidates. The technical and economic feasibility of alternative business models, which would transfer GROHE's use of chromium trioxide outside of the EU, are also considered.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 

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The Use of Chromium Trioxide for Electroplating of Different Types of Substrates with the Purpose of Creating a Long-lasting, High Durability Surface with a Shiny or Matte Look

Grohe AG

2015 Chromium (VI) trioxide (1333-82-0; 215-607-8) and more...  Electroplating; Etching plastic substrates    

In this assessment, GROHE has completed an analysis of alternatives to chromium trioxide-based plating, focusing on PVD and trivalent chrome-based solution electroplating. The study evaluates the technical feasibility of potential alternative substances and technologies, as well as the impact on GROHE's business and profitability of possibly switching to the use of the most viable candidates. The technical and economic feasibility of alternative business models, which would transfer GROHE’s use of chromium trioxide outside of the EU, are also considered.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

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Phthalate-free Plasticizers in PVC

Healthy Building Network

2014Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) (68515-48-0; 28553-12-0) and more...Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) building materials  

Phthalates are the most commonly used plasticizers in PVC. Since they are not tightly bound to the PVC molecules, they migrate from PVC products, resulting in the potential for human exposure. In addition to being endocrine disruptors, some phthalates are carcinogens and/or reproductive or developmental toxicants, necessitating that other plasticizers be considered. This assessment examines six alternatives to the commonly used phthalate, DINP, in PVC building materials. It compares the manufacturing, human, and eco- toxicity of these phthalate-free plasticizer chemicals before making a recommendation for the best alternative.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard Exposure 

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 Lifecycle Impacts

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Substitution of Brominated Flame Retardants with Non-Halogenated Alternatives Using the GreenScreen for Safer Chemicals Alternatives Assessment Tool

Hewlett Packard (HP)

2012 Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) (3194-55-6) and more...  Computer products, electrical products, and more...    

HP worked with flame retardant suppliers to first identify alternatives to BFRs and then assess their hazard profiles using GreenScreen®. The incorporation of this tool in their integrated alternatives assessment framework enabled HP to eliminate unsuitable alternatives before investing time and money into performance, exposure, and life-cycle assessments.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard

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Brake Cleaning in Auto Repair Shops: An Example of Substitution in Practice

Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety

2008 Volatile brake cleaning agents (Hydrocarbon cleaning agents, flash point <21°C, propellant gas: propane/butane) and more...  Brake cleaning    

Many brake cleaners are highly flammable (flash point <21°C) or extremely flammable (flash point <0°C). Cleaning with volatile solvents poses risks to human health and the environment. This report provides three alternatives to the current cleaning method, comparing their risks, costs, and technical feasibilities.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard Exposure 

 Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability 

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An Investigation of Alternatives to Miniature Batteries Containing Mercury

Lowell Center for Sustainable Production

2004 Mercury (Hg) miniature batteries and more...  Batteries    

Miniature batteries are used in numerous products that require compact sources of electrical power. Mercury from these batteries can be released to the environment during various stages of the product life cycle, and once released, mercury can transform to toxic organic forms and biomagnify up the food chain. In this assessment, several alternatives to mercury-containing miniature batteries are identified and evaluated. Only the lithium miniature batteries contain no intentionally added mercury; the other alternatives typically have 0.1 to 2 percent mercury content, though mercury-free options are becoming more available.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard Exposure 

 Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability 

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An Overview of Alternatives to Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

Lowell Center for Sustainable Production

2006 Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) (3194-55-6) and more...  Printed wiring boards, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, and more...    

This report details the applications of the commonly used flame retardants TBBPA and HBCD and proposes three approaches for manufacturers to reduce or eliminate the use of these particular chemicals: flame retardant substitution, resin/material substitution, and product redesign. Alternatives to TBBPA and HBCD are identified in each of these categories with corresponding health, environmental, and performance concerns outlined.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard

 Technical Feasibility

 Lifecycle Impacts 

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Decabromodiphenylether: An Investigation of Non-Halogen Substitutes in Electronic Enclosure and Textile Applications

Lowell Center for Sustainable Production

2005 Decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE) (1163-19-5) and more...  Electronic enclosures; Textiles    

In response to interest by manufacturers, government officials, and public health and environmental health advocates, this alternatives assessment considers non-halogen substitutes for the flame retardant decaBDE in its most common applications: electronic enclosures and textiles. The document outlines the sectors that use this flame retardant in the U.S. and describes alternatives and their uses, costs, and availabilities. Identifying exposure and human and environmental toxicity of flame retardants was outside the scope of this study.

Attributes considered:

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

Lifecycle Impacts

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Phthalates and Their Alternatives: Health and Environmental Concerns

Lowell Center for Sustainable Production

2011 Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (117-81-7) and more...  Medical devices, food wrap, and more...    

Phthalates are used in a wide variety of consumer products, particularly those that are made up of PVC. The addition of phthalates to PVC makes this brittle plastic more flexible and durable. However, phthalates are not chemically bound to PVC, leading them to leach out of products over time and putting humans at risk of exposure. Phthalates have been identified as reproductive and developmental toxicants, and some phthalates, such as DEHP and BBP, are classified as possible human carcinogens by the U.S. EPA. As a result, there is a need for alternative plasticizers. This report describes several of these alternatives and details their functions and their unique human health and environmental concerns.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

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The Use of Di-2ethylhexyl-Phthalate in PVC Medical Devices: Exposure, Toxicity and Alternatives

Lowell Center for Sustainable Production

1999 Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (117-81-7) and more...  Medical devices    

DEHP is widely used as a plasticizer to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC or vinyl) medical products soft and flexible. PVC is used in a range of medical devices from intravenous (IV) fluid containers and blood bags to medical tubing. This report examines the published literature on health risks to DEHP exposure using laboratory studies in animals, in vitro studies in human or animal cell lines, and evidence in humans, when available. Variability and uncertainties regarding exposure and toxicity were carefully considered as was the relevance of studies in experimental animals to the possibility of risk in humans. A literature review and supplier interviews were also conducted to characterize the availability and cost-competitiveness of PVC alternatives for use in medical devices.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 Lifecycle Impacts

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Use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Regulatory Alternatives Analysis: A Case Study of Lead Free Solder

Malloy, T.F., Sinsheimer, P.J., Blake, A., & Linkov, I

2012 Pb-based (lead) bar solder and more...  Consumer electronics    

Using the case of Pb-based bar solder and its non Pb-based alternatives, the authors of this study developed a workable alternatives assessment model and applied MCDA methods to assist in analysis. Specifically, in conducting their alternatives assessment, the authors identified key criteria for comparison (e.g., technical, health and safety, environmental, and economic attributes) and the metrics for measuring performance on those criteria, identified potentially viable alternatives, and collected and compiled data regarding performance of the regulated product and alternatives for each criterion. The next step was alternatives evaluation, which involved the development of weights for the relevant criteria and the balancing of the performance of the regulated chemical or product and the alternatives, respectively, across the criteria to develop a ranking. Various scenarios were considered with the balancing being completed through application of the MCDA methods multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) and outranking decision analysis.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 Lifecycle Impacts

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Cleaning in the Healthcare Industry: Reducing Human Health Effects and Environmental Impacts

Markkanen, P., Quinn, M., Galligan, C., & Bello, A.

2009 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and more...  Cleaning products    

This report focuses on how to make cleaning in healthcare facilities safer. Potential health and environmental impacts of commonly used cleaning chemicals are addressed before the report defines green cleaning and discusses the use a systems approach to implement green cleaning. Ultimately, the desired outcome is to move toward non-chemical alternatives. This can be achieved by identifying new technologies and building materials.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 Lifecycle Impacts

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Guidance on Alternatives to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and its Derivatives

Stockholm Convention Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee

2010 Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (1763-23-1) and more...  Cleaning agents, waxes, and polishes for cars and floors, and more...    

The report discusses the various uses of PFOS, its salts and PFOSF as a surfactant in impregnation, coating, metal plating, fire-fighting foams and the like and indicates where alternatives have been suggested, are available or have already been introduced to the market in some countries. This report contains a brief description of the environmental, safety and health properties of PFOS alternatives.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard   

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 Social Impacts

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Assessment of Alternatives to Perchloroethylene in the Dry Cleaning Industry

TURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)

2012 (currently being updated to include expanded hazard and cost data) Perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene)(127-18-4) and more... Dry cleaning    

Perchloroethylene is a solvent used for cleaning garments. However, improper use, storage, and disposal of perchloroethylene have resulted in contamination of groundwater and soil at dry cleaning sites. Exposure to perchloroethylene is also associated with adverse health effects, especially in dry cleaning workers. Because of these impacts, perchloroethylene is more strictly regulated today than in the past, and cleaners are turning to alternatives for use in their operations. This report provides insight into seven alternatives to perchloroethylene in dry cleaning, giving cleaners a chance to learn about economically viable and environmentally preferred methods for garment cleaning that are available. Technical, financial, environmental, health and safety, and regulatory information are provided for perchloroethylene and the alternatives.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard   Exposure

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 Lifecycle Impacts

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Five Chemicals Alternatives Assessment Study

TURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)

2006 Lead (Pb) & lead compounds (7439-92-1) and more... Wheel weights, fishing sinkers, and more...    

This report provides information for 16 different use categories for five chemicals (lead, formaldehyde, perchloroethylene, hexavalent chromium, and DEHP), their uses in manufacturing, consumer products, and possible substitutes for their uses. The report identifies several alternatives for each chemical that were prioritized for assessment based on performance, availability, manufacturing location, environmental and human health and safety issues, global market effect, classes of similar alternatives, cost, and value to Massachusetts Stakeholders. In addition to information on potential hazards of the five chemicals and their substitutes, information on cost is also presented. All assessments compare technical/performance criteria, environmental criteria, human health criteria, and cost of the alternatives relative to that of the chemical of concern by using "better," "similar," "worse," or "unknown" designations.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard 

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 Lifecycle Impacts

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Green(er) PVC: The Development of Lead and Phtalate-Free Nanocomposite Formulations with Practical Utility

TURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)

2007 Lead (Pb) and phthalate PVC compositions: Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) (26761-40-0); Standard Pb-based stabilizer and more...  PVC plastics/wire and cable coating applications

The use of lead stabilizers and phthalate plasticizers in PVC wire and cable formulations has the potential to cause negative impacts on human health and the environment. This report considers clay nanocomposite technology, comprised of environmentally benign non-lead stabilizers, clay nanofillers, and vegetable oil-based plasticizers, as an alternative. To compare the effectiveness of this technology to traditionally used stabilizers and plasticizers, PVC was dry-blended with lead and non-lead stabilizers and diisodecyl phthalate and epoxidized linseed oil plasticizers, compounded using a twin-screw extruder with and without a low loading of nanoclay, pelletized, and sheet extruded for property analysis. This report includes mechanical, electrical, thermal, and fire testing results for the resulting PVC blends.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 

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Substitution Case Study: Alternatives to Solvent and Petroleum-based Inks

TURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)

1993 Petroleum and solvent-based lithographic, flexographic, and gravure inks and more... Commercial printing    

This report introduces major commercial printing processes, focusing on lithographic, flexographic, and gravure inks. These types of inks have formulations that may pose environmental and worker health and safety concerns. As such, a need for alternatives exists. Six alternatives to petroleum-based lithographic inks and one alternative to alcohol-based flexographic and gravure inks are presented with ink attributes, technical advantages and disadvantages, capital and operating costs, product quality, and environmental and occupational health concerns outlined.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

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Sustainable Routes to Non-Halogenated Flame Retardants Based on Phenolic Monomers

TURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)

2009 Halogenated flame retardants and more...  Plastics

Halogenated compounds are one of the most commonly used classes of flame retardants. However, halogenated flame retardants are environmentally persistent and generate toxic, corrosive gases during combustion that threaten both air and water ecosystems. As a result, several governments including the European Union and states like Maine, Washington, and Oregon, have created restrictions and/or bans on the use of specific halogenated flame retardants. There is therefore an immediate need to replace these halogenated flame retardants with more environmentally compatible alternative flame retardant materials. This report investigates the use of flame retardants based on natural materials (cardanol) and synthetic phenols (BHDB and MHDB) produced in aqueous/benign solvents as alternatives.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard   

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

 

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Report on the Major Mercury Containing Products and Processes, their Substitutes and Experience in Switching to Mercury-Free Products and Processes

UNEP Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Mercury

2008 Mercury (Hg) (7439-97-6) and more...  Measuring and control devices, batteries, and more...    

For Hg-containing products and processes, a description of product/process, purpose of Hg in the product/process, quantity of Hg used per unit of product/process, representative manufacturers and processors, retail pricing, and estimated annual demand for Hg at the country level are provided. For Hg-free alternatives, a description of product/process, representative manufacturers/processors, retail pricing, advantages and disadvantages of these substitutes as compared to Hg-containing products/processes, level of Hg substitution, and experience with alternatives are provided. Key findings for demand and substitution are summarized for each process, along with whether transition success to the non-Hg alternative was achieved. Information from 33 countries was compiled by UNEP for this report.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility

Cost/Benefits & Availability

Social Impacts 

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Alternative Technologies for Surface Finishing: Cleaner Technologies for Printed Wiring Board Manufacturers

U.S. EPA Design for the Environment Program

2001 Tin-lead hot air solder leveling (HASL) and more...  Printed wiring boards    

This analysis considers five alternatives to the surface finish HASL used in printed wiring boards. A summary of how each alternative performs relative to the baseline technology with respect to worker risk, environmental risk, performance, cost, and resource use is provided. Methods to prevent pollution in the printed wiring board industry conclude the assessment.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Cost/Benefits & Availability

Social Impacts 

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Assessment for the Flame Retardant Decabromodiphenyl Ether (decaBDE)

U.S. EPA Design for the Environment Program

2014 Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) (1163-19-5) and more...  Electronics, wire/cable, and more...    

This report provides information on decaBDE, its use in products and materials, and possible substitutes for these uses. The report identifies 29 alternatives that are potential functional substitutes for inclusion and assessment. In addition to information on potential hazards of decaBDE and possible substitutes, information on the trade-offs associated with each alternative is presented for consideration in substitution decision-making. Hazard designations are assigned for each chemical hazard endpoint considered based on the DfE Alternatives Assessment Criteria for Hazard Evaluation.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility 

Cost/Benefits & Availability

Lifecycle Impacts

Social Impacts 

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Bisphenol A Alternatives in Thermal Paper

U.S. EPA Design for the Environment Program

2015 Bisphenol-A (BPA) (80-05-7) and more...  Thermal paper    

This report provides information on BPA, its use in thermal paper, and possible substitutes for this use. The report identifies 19 alternatives that are potential functional substitutes for inclusion and assessment. In addition to information on potential hazards of BPA and possible substitutes, information on the trade-offs associated with each alternative is presented for consideration in substitution decision-making. Hazard designations are assigned for each chemical hazard endpoint considered based on the DfE Alternatives Assessment Criteria for Hazard Evaluation.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility 

Cost/Benefits & Availability

Lifecycle Impacts

Social Impacts 

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Flame Retardant Alternatives for Hexabromocyclododecne(HBCD)

U.S. EPA Design for the Environment Program

2014 Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) (25637-99-4; 3194-55-6) and more...  Expanded & extruded polystyrene foam    

This report provides information on HBCD, its use in expanded & extruded polystyrene foam, and possible substitutes for this use. The report identifies 3 alternatives that are potential functional substitutes for inclusion and assessment. In addition to information on potential hazards of HBCD and possible substitutes, information on the trade-offs associated with each alternative is presented for consideration in substitution decision-making. Hazard designations are assigned for each chemical hazard endpoint considered based on the DfE Alternatives Assessment Criteria for Hazard Evaluation.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility 

Cost/Benefits & Availability

Lifecycle Impacts

Social Impacts 

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Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam: An Alternatives Assessment Update

U.S. EPA Design for the Environment Program

2015 Pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE) (32534-81-9) and more...  Flexible polyurethane foam    

This report provides an overview of flexible polyurethane foam and the flame retardants used in it. The report identifies 16 flame retardant chemicals, one non-proprietary mixture, and 2 proprietary mixtures that are potential functional substitutes to pentaBDE in flexible polyurethane foam for inclusion and assessment. Hazard designations are assigned for each chemical hazard endpoint considered based on the DfE Alternatives Assessment Criteria for Hazard Evaluation. This report also provides a discussion of alternative flame retardant solutions such as flame resistant cover fabrics, fire barriers, polymers and reactive flame retardants, and nanoclays.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard  Exposure 

Technical Feasibility 

Cost/Benefits & Availability

Lifecycle Impacts

Social Impacts 

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Alternatives for Elimination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Pigments Used for Printing Inks and Architectural Paints

Washington State Department of Ecology

2014 Pigments containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as azo and copper phthalocyanine pigments and more...  Inks and paints    

It has long been known that PCBs are inadvertently generated in the manufacture of some pigments. As PCBs are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals, it is beneficial to reduce sources of these chemicals wherever possible to limit exposure to people and the environment. However, PCB-free pigments pose many challenges. These pigments must show potential to be used for widely distributed applications, including large-volume, low-cost printing of magazines, newspapers, and architectural paints. This report summarizes economic and ecological considerations of PCB-free pigments, as well as compiling research on alternative pathway mechanisms that avoid the formation of PCBs.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard 

Technical Feasibility 

Cost/Benefits & Availability

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Alternatives to Deca-BDE in Televisions and Computers and Residential Upholstered Furniture

Washington State Department of Ecology and Department of Health

2008 Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) (1163-19-5) and more... Degergents, cleaners, and more...    

In order to implement a state law that restricts the manufacture, sale, and distribution of products containing Deca-BDE and/or other polybrominated diphenyl ethers, the Washington State Departments of Ecology and Health reviewed risk assessments and scientific studies to identify and evaluate alternatives to Deca-BDE in TVs, computers, and upholstered furniture. For TVs and computers, non-halogenated flame retardants that are less likely to persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in organisms are considered. With respect to furniture, design alternatives, such as inherently flame resistant materials, are weighed. The report investigates cost, technical feasibility, and human health and environmental impacts of the alternatives.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard   Exposure

Technical Feasibility 

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Washington State Lead Chemical Action Plan

Washington State Department of Ecology and Department of Health

2009 Lead (Pb) & lead compounds (7439-92-1) and more...  Toys, jewelry, and more...    

This report estimates the amount of lead used and released from all man-made and naturally occurring sources or activities in Washington. It also includes estimates of production, intentional and unintentional uses, disposal and other practices that contribute to exposure. It describes the impact on human health and the environment associated with the use and release of lead, including levels present in the environment, potential for exposure, likely fate and transport mechanisms, available body burden data, toxicity effects, and rates of diseases that have been associated with exposure. The report proposes recommendations for reducing and phasing-out uses and releases, managing products or wastes, minimizing exposure, switching to safer substitutes, and encouraging the development of safer alternatives. Recommendations are evaluated on economic and social impacts, environmental and human health benefits associated with implementing the action, feasibility, and the availability and effectiveness of safer substitutes. Performance measures are included to assess progress.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard   Exposure

Technical Feasibility 

Cost/Benefits & Availability 

Social Impacts 

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DfE Alternatives Assessment for Nonylphenol Ethoxylates

U.S. EPA Design for the Environment Program

2012 Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE9) (127087-87-0) and more...  Hybrid car batteries    

This report provides information on NPEs, their use in products and materials, and possible substitutes for these uses. The report identifies nine alternatives that are potential functional substitutes for inclusion and assessment. Hazard designations are assigned for each chemical hazard endpoint considered based on the DfE Alternatives Assessment Criteria for Hazard Evaluation.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard   Exposure

Technical Feasibility 

Cost/Benefits & Availability 

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Washington State Antifouling Boat Paint Alternatives Assessment Report

TechLaw, Northwest Green Chemistry

2017 Cuprous oxide (1317-39-1) and more...  Antifouling boat paints used for recreational boats    

This report was developed in response to legislation phasing out the use of copper in antifouling boat paints for recreational vessels and calling for an evaluation of how the paints affects marine organisms and water quality. This report assesses alternatives to copper-based antifouling paint by identifying and comparing potential chemical and non-chemical alternatives. The alternative products evaluated in this report are available in the State of Washington and fall under the categories of biocidal coatings, non-biocidal coatings, mechanical technologies, and sound-based technologies. Products are evaluated and compared for parameters including hazard, exposure, performance, and cost and availability. Stakeholders were actively recruited and engaged throughout the process. Results of the assessment for copper-free products are found in the Selection Guide, which offers recommendations that accommodate the diverse needs and preferences of consumers.

Attributes considered:

Chemical Hazard   Exposure

Performance

Cost/Benefits & Availability 

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Methodology for the OECD Substitution and Alternatives Assessment Case Study Repository

This OECD case study repository summarizes and presents examples of alternatives assessments in a uniform way, with the goal of facilitating the analysis of lessons learned and searchability.

Case studies included in this repository meet the following criteria:

  • Represent a completed assessment of chemical, product, or process alternatives, and/or describe examples of successful substitutions;
  • Compare alternatives against one or more attributes (e.g., chemical hazard, cost, technical feasibility);
  • Include sufficient transparency of methodology and results for summarization.

In developing this case study repository, OECD’s goal is to include case studies that represent a variety of organizations, industry sectors, and alternatives assessment frameworks. Preference is given to case studies conducted within the last ten years, but in certain cases, older case studies have been included to enhance the type and range of information included in the repository. Inclusion of a case study within the case study repository does not mean that OECD endorses the methodology or results.

Each of the case studies included in the repository was evaluated against a common template. The resulting summaries were then sent to the study’s author(s) for review, and revisions were made, as necessary. Future OECD SAAToolbox releases will contain additional case studies.

 

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