Résultats du PISA 2022

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05/12/2023
The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) examines what students know in mathematics, reading and science, and what they can do with what they know. It provides the most comprehensive and rigorous international assessment of student learning outcomes to date. Results from PISA indicate the quality and equity of learning outcomes attained around the world, and allow educators and policy makers to learn from the policies and practices applied in other countries. This is one of five volumes that present the results of the eighth round of assessment, PISA 2022. Volume I, The State of Learning and Equity in Education, describes students’ performance in mathematics, reading and science; examines gender differences in performance; and investigates how performance relates to students’ socio-economic status and immigrant background. It also describes how the quality and equity of learning outcomes have evolved since previous PISA assessments.
05/12/2023
The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) examines what students know in mathematics, reading and science, and what they can do with what they know. It provides the most comprehensive and rigorous international assessment of student learning outcomes to date. Results from PISA indicate the quality and equity of learning outcomes attained around the world, and allow educators and policy makers to learn from the policies and practices applied in other countries. This is one of five volumes that present the results of the eighth round of assessment, PISA 2022 – which was conducted during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Volume II, Learning During – and From – Disruption, focuses on resilience in education and analyses its relevance for education systems, schools and students. The volume covers: learning during and from school closures; life at school and support from home; students’ pathways through school; investments in education; and school governance. Trends in these indicators are examined when comparable data are available.
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26/10/2023
As the global benchmark in educational assessments, PISA results are always hotly anticipated. The eighth round of PISA assessment was originally planned to take place in 2021 but the disruption caused by COVID-19 forced the assessment to be postponed by a year. The first results of PISA 2022 will be unveiled in two volumes on 5 December 2023. The focus of PISA 2022 is mathematics, with an emphasis on mathematics reasoning, to highlight its importance in tackling complex real-life challenges. The first volume examines how student performance in mathematics, reading and science as well as equity in education evolved before and after the pandemic. The second volume of PISA 2022 identifies “resilient education systems” that maintained or promoted student learning, equity, and well-being amid the pandemic.
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31/08/2023
This report presents the conceptual foundations of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), now in its eighth cycle of comprehensive and rigorous international surveys of student knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in modern societies. As in previous cycles, the 2022 PISA assessment covered reading, mathematics and science, with a major focus on mathematics, plus an evaluation of students’ creative thinking and financial literacy skills. This publication includes the frameworks for assessing mathematics, financial literacy and creative thinking. These chapters outline the content knowledge and skills that students need to acquire in each domain, how each domain is assessed, and the contexts in which this knowledge and these skills are applied. The publication also presents the frameworks for the various questionnaires distributed to students, school principals, parents and teachers, including a new Global Crisis Module (GCM) for students and school principals. It concludes with the framework for the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) familiarity questionnaire distributed to students.
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15/07/2023
Advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) are laying the groundwork for extensive and rapid transformations in society. Understanding the relationship between AI capabilities and human skills is essential to ensure policy responsiveness to ongoing and incoming changes. The OECD has tracked how well AI systems fare on tasks from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), comparing AI performance to that of 15-year-old students in the test’s core domains of reading, mathematics and science. Tests were conducted using the Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (GPT) family of large language models (LLMs), the AI behind ChatGPT, which took the world by storm after its public release in late 2022. Results show that both GPT versions outperform average student performance in reading and science. In addition, we observe rapid advances in mathematics where AI capabilities are quickly catching up with those of students. In November 2022, GPT-3.5 could answer 35% of a set of PISA mathematics tasks, a level of performance significantly below that of humans, who answer 51% of the tasks successfully on average. However, by March 2023, GPT-4 answered 40% of the tasks successfully. Policy implications of these results are discussed in this paper.
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05/06/2023
An important construct to be measured in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2025 is the degree to which 15-year-olds are knowledgeable of, concerned about, and able to act on environmental issues as a result of their science education. This document justifies and explains the competencies youth need to address local and global challenges in this epoch of human influences on the planet. Those with agency in the Anthropocene work individually and collectively with hope and efficacy to understand diverse perspectives on socio-ecological systems and to create a more just and resilient future.
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28/04/2023
Proficient readers use and engage with a variety of texts, including books, online articles and social media. They can find information, understand the literal and the implied meaning, and reflect critically on content and form. But before students can become proficient readers, they must become fluent readers. In every language, once students read fluently, they can devote their effort and attention to higher-level comprehension tasks and engage more deeply with texts. This policy brief examines what we can learn from the results of the assessment of students' reading fluency within the 2018 PISA test, and its importance for teachers.
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16/12/2022
OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scaling methodologies are reviewed from the mathematical perspective. In particular, the paper aims to elucidate the model structures and the model assumptions of item response theory used in the item scaling phase, the latent regression model employed in the student prior estimation phase, and the population modelling and Laplace approximation performed in the multiple imputations phase. It provides insights for maximising the impact of the innovations implemented in PISA while minimising the risk of impairing the reliability and the validity of the assessments, which is essential for maintaining technically sound international assessments. Based on the theoretical considerations, the scale robustness of PISA is confirmed against the growing number of countries/economies; nevertheless, the importance of assessing the model-data fit and investigating residual structures by sub-populations are indicated in this study. Furthermore, analysis procedures for nuisance factors such as testlet effect and locally dependent items are introduced in this paper. In summary, this study provides the theoretical considerations underpinning the stability and extensibility of the PISA scale.
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25/11/2022
The Republic of Türkiye’s trajectory of improvement over the past two decades stands out internationally. Few other countries have been able to bring previously out-of-school children into the education system and improve performance at the same time. This report provides a picture on how student performance has evolved over this period. It is based on data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The report analyses if factors related to student background – such as gender or socio-economic status – are associated with performance. It also analyses student performance across different cognitive and content domains of learning.
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25/10/2022
Many students view PISA as a low-stakes assessment. Their lack of willingness to give the assessment “their all” is reflected in students’ performance. Boys are often disengaged, resulting in low test performance. Disengagement should be measured in various different ways to better understand it and improve assessment design.
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25/10/2022
Student engagement is of central importance in a low-stakes assessment such as OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In the theoretical section, this report provides an overview of the literature on the topic and identifies sources of information to compute measures of disengagement in PISA. In the empirical section, the consistency, associations with student variables, and stability over time are examined for a set of measures based on data from PISA 2018, 2015, and 2012. The various measures investigated only show little consistency, an exception being rapid guessing on the test and non-response in the questionnaire. Boys, socio-economically disadvantaged students, as well as students with an immigrant background are more likely to show disengagement. Furthermore, disengagement is consistently associated with lower test performance. The report concludes with a discussion of possible solutions to address the impact of disengagement on the inferences made on the basis of PISA test and questionnaire data.
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22/08/2022
The OECD's PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) is expanding on new educational systems from cycle to cycle. Most of the new participants differ significantly and negatively from the core participants in the level of educational proficiency. The study has investigated a potential expansion of the new participants’ proportion from 15% of low performing countries to 50% of low-performing countries in the PISA sample. A simulation study was performed that aimed to check whether an increasing share of low performing countries among PISA participants can affect: a) key country parameters (means and within-country standard deviations), b) item parameters (difficulty and discrimination), and c) sensitivity and specificity of differential item functioning procedures. The results of the study point out that the PISA procedures are fit and robust to the increasing proportion of low-performing countries resulting in highly reliable inter country score differences and estimates of country means.
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08/04/2022
This paper provides a new measure of human capital using PISA and PIAAC surveys, and mean years of schooling. The new measure is a cohort-weighted average of past PISA scores (representing the quality of education) of the working age population and the corresponding mean years of schooling (representing the quantity of education). In contrast to the existing literature, the relative weights of each component are not imposed or calibrated but directly estimated. The paper finds that the elasticity of the stock of human capital with respect to the quality of education is three to four times larger than for the quantity of education. The new measure has a strong link to productivity with the potential for productivity gains being much greater from improvements in the quality than quantity component of human capital. The magnitude of these potential gains in MFP is comparable to a similarly standardised improvement in product market regulation, but the effects materialise with much longer lags. The paper demonstrates through the example of pre-primary education, how to simulate the impact of a particular reform to education policy on human capital and productivity.
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20/12/2021
Education has a fundamental role in promoting the integration of students with an immigrant background in host societies. It can help them acquire skills to participate in the economy, promote their social and emotional well-being and support their participation in the social and civic life of their communities. However, there are challenges in ensuring good outcomes for students with an immigrant background as, among others, they need to overcome adversities related to displacement, socio-economic disadvantage and language barriers. Building on the 2018 Report “The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background: Factors that Shape Well-being” by the OECD Strength through Diversity project, this paper analyses the academic, socio‑emotional and motivational resilience of students with an immigrant background across OECD countries. It provides updated findings with data from the OECD’s Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 and examines how outcomes across different student groups have changed in recent years.
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20/10/2021
This paper quantifies the learning gain that accrues to 15‑year-old students over one year of schooling in 18 countries and economies, where the cohort eligible to sit the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)ISA test overlaps with two distinct school cohorts. School-entry regulations are used as an exogenous source of variation for grade levels in an instrumental- variables framework. The focus on the joint effect of schooling and age, together with (local) linearity assumptions, make it possible to account for differences in school-starting age across students who are expected to be in different grades. On average, students’ test scores increase by about one-fifth of a standard deviation over a school year. While estimates of the grade gain for individual countries and economies come with wide confidence intervals, this study also shows the annual learning gain of students around the age of 15 tends to be larger in high-income countries compared to middle-income countries.
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30/07/2021
Countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have clear aspirations to strengthen civic participation and increase prosperity for all. A highly skilled and knowledgeable population is critical to achieving these goals, which makes creating and maintaining high quality and equitable education systems a vital part of regional development efforts. Results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) show that learning outcomes in the region have generally improved, but that the improvement has not been equitable. While countries in the region are producing some of the top performing students in the world, many other students are being left behind. This report, jointly developed by OECD and UNICEF, analyses PISA data in detail to identify the strengths, challenges and unique features of education systems in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Drawing upon a rich knowledge base of education policy and practice in the region, it makes recommendations about how systems in the region can provide an excellent education for all students. This report will be of interest to regional policy-makers as well as individuals who wish to learn more about education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
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15/07/2021
School accountability is one of the most controversial recent reforms taking place in education systems around the world, but evidence of whether and which accountability practices affect equity and performance in academic achievement has been difficult to isolate and establish. By using data available from several cycles of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2006-2015), this paper assesses the extent to which accountability practices affect equity and performance in academic achievement in high-income-and-low-and-middle-income-countries. We found no conclusive evidence of accountability practices affecting educational outcomes in high-income-countries. However, we found some evidence in low-and-middle-income-countries pointing towards increased performance and increased inequality under accountability regimes in these contexts, although only in mathematics and science, and for one of our preferred specifications. In low-and-middle-income-countries, we found that, under higher levels of accountability, higher school autonomy on curriculum management and assessment could render better academic results in reading, mathematics and science.
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30/06/2021
This paper compares the learning gain over one year of schooling among 15-year-old students in Austria and Scotland (United Kingdom). Common metrics for reading, mathematics and science learning, as established by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), are used. In order to overcome the limitations of a cross-sectional, single-cohort design, multiple cycles of PISA data are combined. The fact that Austria and Scotland moved their testing period across cycles is also exploited. The results are used to establish a benchmark for other performance differences observed in PISA, such as gender gaps, socio-economic gaps or between-country differences.
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14/01/2021
An international linking study was conducted in order to link parameters of PISA-based Test for Schools (PBTS) cognitive items to PISA international scales. New booklets for the linking study were designed in which the PISA trend items were inserted as anchor items in addition to the PBTS items. Data was collected from four countries with over 95 000 students via Computer-Based Testing, and analysed with the finite mixture modelling in order to estimate the parameters of PBTS items under the constraint of fixed PISA item parameters. The estimated item parameters were validated in terms of reliability and international comparability. The linking study enabled the PBTS test to provide valid and reliable scores on PISA international scale.
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02/12/2020
The Western Balkans region has clear aspirations to improve its economic competitiveness and integrate further into Europe. A highly skilled population is critical to achieving these goals, which makes creating and maintaining high quality and equitable education systems a vital part of regional development efforts. Results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) show that learning outcomes in the region have improved over time, but that the improvement has not been equitable. Some students are performing similarly to students from countries in the European Union, while others are lagging further behind. This report, developed in co-operation with the European Commission and UNICEF, analyses PISA data in detail to identify the strengths, challenges and unique features of education systems in the Western Balkans. Drawing upon a rich knowledge base of education policy and practice in the region, it makes recommendations about how systems in the region can improve learning for all students. This report will be of interest to regional policy-makers as well as individuals who wish to learn more about education in the Western Balkans.
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