Conflict & Fragility

Conflict and fragility adversely affect the lives of millions. In fragile contexts, rates of extreme poverty can increase as individuals are displaced, livelihoods are devastated, and opportunities for broader growth, development and prosperity are destroyed.


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The International Network on Conflict and Fragility (INCAF) is a unique network of OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members and key multilateral agencies working in fragile and conflict-affected contexts.

Climate change, biodiversity and environmental fragility

Addressing the causes of fragility is essential to effective action on climate change, biodiversity loss and environmental degradation in fragile contexts. Climate change, biodiversity loss and environmental degradation fuel fragility and in turn, fragility makes it hard to adapt to climate change, reduce and manage climate-related risks, and cope with the impacts of biodiversity loss and environmental degradation. Supporting the 2021 DAC Declaration on a new approach to align development cooperation with the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, this International Network on Conflict and Fragility (INCAF) Common Position on climate change, biodiversity and environmental fragility establishes four good practice principles for better knowledge, analysis, financing and strategies to drive more effective approaches to climate change, biodiversity and environmental fragility in fragile and conflict-affected contexts.

States of fragility

Fragility poses a major global threat to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and for sustaining peace, especially now that the COVID-19 pandemic threatens to leave the furthest behind even further behind. Today, fragile contexts are home to 23% (1.8 billion people) of the world's population, but 76.5% of the total number of people living in extreme poverty. If no action is taken to address fragility and its root causes, 2.2 billion people risk being left behind in fragile contexts by 2030. Focusing on fragility now is imperative for people, planet, prosperity and peace.  

The OECD remains one of the few sources of aggregate data and analysis on fragility and adopts an evidence-based view of what makes different contexts fragile. In doing so, the OECD’s analysis helps ensure that issues driving fragility remain high on the international development agenda and drives more effective programming on the ground.

States of Fragility 2020 sets a policy agenda for fragility at a critical turning point: the final countdown on Agenda 2030 is at hand, and the pandemic has reversed hard fought gains. This report examines fragility as a story in two parts: the global state of fragility that existed before COVID 19, and the dramatic impact the pandemic is having on that landscape. It acknowledges the severe reality of fragility in its multidimensionality and complexity. It explores thinking and practice on fragility to propose new ideas on human capital analysis and conflict prevention in order to adapt policy for more resilient outcomes.

The OECD States of Fragility Platform is a one-stop-shop for all data, visualisations, and analysis pertaining to the States of Fragility series. It allows users to analyse all fragile contexts to address fragility along economic, environmental, political, security and societal dimensions, as well as understand the financing landscape in fragile contexts.

Securing the right finance for fragile contexts

Peace comes with a price tag. Yet, ensuring right financing for peace has often been an afterthought. To get things right there must be the right amount of financeusing the right financial tools, for the right length of time, in a way that delivers the right incentives for sustained peace securing the right resources to respond to the root causes – of the next conflict, not the last one – and to respond at scale.

INCAF’s Financing for Stability model is now being used to develop financing strategies in the field, including in Sudan and the Central African Republic.