Important steps have already been taken in OECD countries to combat gender inequality but significant disparities remain in educational and occupational choices. The OECD Gender Initiative monitors the progress made on gender equality, through data and analysis, and provides best practices for achieving greater equality (see our flyer). Our work includes the following areas:


  • Gender differences in social and emotional skills: A forthcoming thematic report will examine gender differences in social and emotional skills among boys and girls, and the types of environments, in schools, with peers and at home, that can influence these skills

  • Skills in Ibero-America – Insights from PIAAC on gender differences: Jointly with the World Bank, the OECD is co-producing a short report analysing the difference in skills by gender in the Latin American countries participating in PIAAC

  • The Gender stereotypes in education working paper, released in May 2022,  maps policies and practices to challenge gender stereotypes in education. It examines the impact of gender stereotypes in education and presents curriculum arrangements, capacity-building strategies and school-level interventions across countries, in line with the OECD Strength through Diversity’s analytical framework.

Employment and work-life balance


  • The OECD’s Women’s Entrepreneurship Initiative (WE Initiative) forms an umbrella for the various thematic pillars of the Centre for Entrepreneurship’s (CFE) work with a gender lens, including SME access to finance, Social Economy and Social Innovation, Women in Tech, Business Development Services, Inclusive Entrepreneurship and national/regional country reviews

  • The OECD in collaboration with the European Commission released The Missing Entrepreneurs 2021 in November 2021. This volume examines how public policies at national, regional and local levels can overcome barriers to business start-ups and self-employment by people from disadvantaged or under-represented groups in entrepreneurship, including women

  • The May 2021 report Entrepreneurship Policies through a Gender Lens was prepared in collaboration with the Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy Research Project. The report presents evidence on the gender gap in entrepreneurship and its causes and examines how to strengthen the scope and effectiveness of entrepreneurship policies for women

  • The OECD/EU Better Entrepreneurship Policy Tool is an online tool designed for policy-makers and other interested parties at local, regional and national level who wish to explore how public policy can: support youth, women, migrants and the unemployed in business creation and self-employment, and support the development of social enterprises

  • The Future of Business Survey (FOBS), a collaboration between Facebook, the OECD, and the World Bank, provides timely data on SMEs disaggregated by gender and by age of business owners/managers, in addition to breakdowns by the size, economic activities and age of businesses

  • Advancing gender equality through the social economy: A forthcoming report will explore how the social economy is advancing gender equality through employment. It will also draw lessons learned from the social economy for the wider economy

  • The Committee for Industry, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIIE) is conducting a project on job quality within the DynEmp project to analyse employment opportunities and job quality across different groups of workers, including women in start-ups.

Public governance

  • The technical advisory group on tackling gender-based violence (TAG), established by the OECD Working Party on Gender Mainstreaming and Governance in 2020, has organised has had a series of thematic policy dialogues to deepen peer-to-peer learning on priority issues of gender-based violenceGBV since its creation. In 2021, TAG provided strategic and technical guidance for the development of the 2022 OECD Survey on Strengthening Governance and Survivor/Victim-centric Approaches to end  gender-based violence
  • The OECD will report progress on the implementation of the OECD Gender Recommendations (i.e. the 2013 Recommendation on Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship [OECD/LEGAL/0398] and the 2015 Recommendation on Gender Equality in Public Life [OECD/LEGAL/0418]) to the Meeting of the Council at Ministerial level (MCM) in May/June 2022

  • The OECD released its Policy Framework for Gender-sensitive Public Policy , which was presented as a MCM deliverable and welcomed by ministers (MCM meeting, October 2021). This policy framework outlines the values and enablers for gender-sensitive public governance, identifies instruments and tools, and considers issues around policy implementation and policy evaluation

  • On 28 April 2021, the Forum virtual event “Building a gender-equal recovery” reflected on the need to mainstream gender-sensitive approaches in recovery plans and to ensure representation and participation in key decision-making processes on the recovery, as a way to promote more inclusive and equal societies

  • Ongoing OECD work on Gender Budgeting by the Committee of Senior Budget Officials (SBO) and its Network on Gender Budgeting included a report Gender and Capital Budgeting as released in July 2021. The Network will analyse results from a gender budgeting survey in 2022

  • In December 2021, the OECD released Promoting gender equality through public procurement as prepared under the auspices of the Working Party of Leading Practitioners on Public Procurement. The report shows how public agencies can use their purchasing power to encourage suppliers to improve their performance on women’s empowerment

  • The OECD and its Senior Infrastructure and PPP Officials Network released “Selected stocktaking of good practices for inclusion of women in infrastructure” (October 2021). The report proposes a framework for incorporating gender considerations at each stage of the public investment process, and involve more women in infrastructure leadership and decision-making

  • On 13 July 2021, the OECD organised the G20 Gender and Infrastructure Group ad hoc meeting, providing countries with an opportunity to hear country presentations on tools to mainstream gender considerations into infrastructure planning and decision-making

  • The OECD programme on Public Procurement and Responsible Business Conduct is preparing a policy brief on the “Economic benefits for governments to ensure the integration of RBC standards throughout supply chains in public procurement activities” for release in 2022

  • The 2021 Regulatory Policy Outlook includes results from the Indicators of Regulatory Policy and Governance (iREG) survey. The results suggest there has been an increase in requirements among OECD member countries to assess gender impacts when developing regulatory proposals: from 27 countries in 2014, to 32 countries in 2020

  • The WP-GMG is planning to convene a Symposium on the theme of gender-disaggregated and intersectional data for evidence-based policymaking and also discuss substantive issues around monitoring and accountability for gender mainstreaming

  • A gender mainstreaming and governance country review is under way for the Czech Republic, Colombia and Morocco.


  • Released in February 2022, Tax Policy and Gender Equality: A Stocktake of Country Approaches analyses country priorities for tax policy and gender, explicit and implicit biases, policy developments, data availability, and priorities for future work in over 40 countries from the G20, OECD and beyond

  • A paper on Taxation of Part-Time Work in the OECD presents new calculations of the effective tax rates on part-time work including those for male and female part-time workers and for different household types, based on the OECD’s well-established Taxing Wages models

  • The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes has launched a pilot programme for Women leaders in tax transparency. The initiative will build a network of women officials championing tax transparency in their tax administrations, and promoting gender equality via mentorship and leadership modules

  • Taxing Wages includes annual modelling of effective tax rates on labour income for different household types provides insights on the tax system incentives for second earners’ labour market participation. The 2022 edition will be released in April

  • A 2021 March on Gender event discussed the impact of tax on gender, including the role of tax in the COVID recovery, gender and tax policy in developing countries and gender budgeting. The 2022 edition, Breaking the tax bias: How to promote gender equality in taxation, will be held mid-March

  • In 2021, the Platform for Collaboration on Tax (OECD, IMF, UN and WB) formed an informal subgroup working on tax and gender and released a joint blogpost and held a joint event on key tax and gender issues

  • In January 2021, a video on Tax and Gender: Releasing potential and promoting equality was presented to the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting meeting. The video highlights that as long as men and women face different socioeconomic realities, tax systems will affect them in different ways

  • Learn about the OECD Forum on Tax Administration's Gender Balance Network (GBN), aimed to help improve the gender balance across the FTA members by leveraging the more balanced position that already exists in some administrations, and identifying effective policies and practices to promote gender equality.

OECD Regional Initiatives on Governance and Competitiveness

Competition, Corporate Governance and Investment


  • The GENDERNET - OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Network on Gender Equality - is the international forum for gender experts from DAC development co-operation agencies and foreign ministries. Its “GENDERNET plus” format supports exchanges with representatives from non-DAC countries, multilateral organisations, development banks, DFIs, civil society and the private sector

  • The DAC Recommendation on Ending Sexual Exploitation, Abuse, and Harassment in Development Co-operation and Humanitarian Assistance aims to strengthen international co-operation and collaboration in implementation of the recommendation

  • The Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) conducts data and policy analysis on gender and development co-operation, including: women’s economic empowerment; COVID-19 prevention and response; development finance for gender equality and economic empowerment; conflict-affected and fragile contexts and the women, peace and security agenda; the climate-gender nexus; and gender-based violence

  • The DCD ipublished in May 2022 Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women and Girls - Guidance for Development Partners around leadership, planning and design, implementation and programming, finance, monitoring and evaluation, and institutional capacity, with a view to achieving transformative change for gender equality. (en français : L'égalité des genres et l’autonomisation des femmes et des filles - Orientations pour les partenaires au développement)

  • The OECD publishes annual data and analysis on financing in support of gender equality and women’s empowerment from DAC donors and provide guidance on good practices and policies for gender equality and women’s empowerment, including gender mainstreaming. Most recent figures for 2020 are expected in April 2022

  • In June 2021, the DCD published “Development finance for gender equality: the Generation Equality Forum Action Coalitions”- an analysis of the development finance available for gender equality in each thematic area of the Generation Equality Forum Action Coalitions

  • Gender-based violence (GBV) is a persistent global crisis, a shadow pandemic. Eliminating it takes a global effort and sustained financing. In November 2021, the DCD published an analysis of the global development finance landscape towards the elimination of GBV, and how ODA can continue to make an impact in response

  • The DCD has undertaken an analysis of blended finance for gender equality. By attracting large volumes of private capital, blended finance funds and facilities can mobilise more financial resources for gender equality and for the empowerment of women and girls, helping to deliver the Sustainable Development Goals. Publication is forthcoming

  • ODA is critical to improve gender analysis by development partners and gender-responsive budgeting tools’ application across public finance management systems. The OECD and UN Women’s jointly developed recommendations to respond to the gender impacts of COVID-19 highlight the need for tailored policies and resources for gender equality and women’s empowerment

  • To better deliver on gender equality in development co-operation and humanitarian action, the OECD has conducted analysis on DAC members’ approaches to integrating gender equality throughout the Humanitarian-Development-Peace Nexus, published in July 2021

  • Gender equality and fragility are inextricably linked. Recent OECD analysis (2021) highlights that gender inequalities are both a key driver and perpetuator of fragility. Following this analysis, the OECD continues to analyse how development partners can respond to growing gender inequalities in fragile contexts

  • Addressing climate change is a global issue and one that must be gender-sensitive. To better combat the devastating effects of climate change and gender inequality, official development assistance (ODA) can be leveraged to support gender-responsive climate action. A publication on the topic is forthcoming

  • In partnership between the Development Co-operation Directorate and SWAC, research and analysis is being conducted to highlight how development partners are engaging on work towards addressing gender equality in the Sahel and West Africa region. A publication on the topic is forthcoming 
  • In August 2021, PARIS21 became the new secretariat of the Gender Data Network - a joint initiative between PARIS21, Data2X, UNECA, and Open Data Watch which supports better gender data production, communication and use across countries. For instance, PARIS21 organised a “Training-of-Trainers” on gender data communication in September 2021

  • In 2021, PARIS21 launched a free e-learning course in partnership with UN Women on “Communicating Statistics on Women's Economic Empowerment”, designed for journalists and statisticians

  • In October 2021, PARIS21 as Secretariat of the Bern Network, launched its Clearinghouse for Financing Development Data, a new, free online platform that aid recipients, donors and others can use to analyse data financing flows, and identify funding gaps, including gaps in financing for gender data

  • In November 2021, PARIS21 published the annual Partner Report on Support to Statistics - PRESS 2021. The results show a persisting stagnation in the donor financing for gender data in low- and middle-income countries

  • In 2022, PARIS21 will publish its Synthesis Report summarising its 3-year work with countries and UN Women on mainstreaming gender data in statistical planning in in low- and middle-income countries

  • PARIS21 worked with the governments of Maldives and Paraguay to integrate a gender perspective in the strategic planning for statistics. A gender-responsive National Strategy for the Development of Statistics (2021-2030) in Maldives and a National Strategy for the development of Gender Statistics (2021-2025) in Paraguay were launched in November 2021

  • Integrating a gender perspective in statistical planning is central to PARIS21’s support to national statistical offices (NSO), especially regarding the design of National Strategies for the Development of Statistics (NSDS gender module and NSDS Training), training curricula on communication, and NSO leadership and data planning tools (e.g. ADAPT gender module).

Financial Education


Digital Transformation and Science

  • Deepening the evidence base on the role of women in the digital transformation is essential for developing better policies. The OECD’s Going Digital Toolkit presents the gender dimension across a number of key indicators

  • In October 2021, the Science, Technology & Innovation Directorate (STI) organised a high-level event in the margins of the MCM on Addressing digital gender divides, highlighting new indicators on gender from the Going Digital Toolkit

  • The under-representation of women in certain areas of science, technology and innovation has long been a concern. The OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2021 finds that the current academic system discriminates against women and a number of social groups leading to a lack of diversity in the research workforce

  • Most countries have established strategies to address the under-representation of women in STI. The Gender balance and inclusiveness dashboard of the EC-OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Compass (STIP Compass) includes national measures to promote the participation of under-represented groups in S&T education and research careers

  • On 29 March 2021, within the March on Gender, STI and the ITF organised a virtual event with on Addressing the gender bias in artificial intelligence data to begin to explore the gender data bias in artificial intelligence, and best practices and policy recommendations to address it
  • Using figures on gender equality in artificial intelligence from the OECD.AI Policy Observatory, STI is publishing a new joint report with the IDB and UNESCO on “The effects of AI on the working lives of women”. The report will be launched via an online discussion on 8 March 2022

  • The Digital Economy Outlook flagship publication (next edition in 2023-4) will continue to include evidence and analysis on gender issues

  • The Committee on Consumer Policy (CCP) is conducting a consumer survey to measure financial personal consumer detriment associated with e-commerce, enabling the collection of gender information. Results will be published in 2022.



  • The ITF is finalising a Gender Analysis Toolkit for Transport Policies to provide guidance to ITF member countries on how to conduct gender analysis for transport policies (expected: March 2022), which will also incorporate results of a questionnaire to ITF member countries on integrating a gender perspective in transport policies


  • In summer 2022, the IEA launched a new Gender and Energy Data Explorer offering detailed data on gender gaps in the energy sector in employment and wages, senior management, entrepreneurship and innovation

  • In 2021, the IEA and the Clean Energy, Education and Empowerment (C3E) initiative surveyed 25 energy ministries on gender balance in management, gender mainstreaming and gender-disaggregated data for the energy sector. Using the results, the IEA will develop a tool mapping best practice examples for advancing gender diversity

  • The IEA is collecting gender-disaggregated data for energy related to innovation, entrepreneurship, employment and senior management. Data will be accessible through a gender data portal in June 2022, on the energy and gender page. Analysis on women in senior management was published (2021) and further analysis is planned for 2022

  • In 2021, with the goal of better integrating a gender perspective in IEA work, the template for the IEA's in-depth country reviews was modified to include questions about gender mainstreaming and gender-disaggregated data. In addition, a gender section was included in the IEA’s Special report on Critical minerals (2021)

  • In June 2021, the Governing Board gave the green light to establish the IEA Gender Advisory Council. The Council, which consists of senior officials, will provide guidance to the IEA Secretariat and member governments in their gender mainstreaming efforts

  • The IEA coordinates the C3E workstream on knowledge and data collection and is playing an active role in helping C3E to apply for renewal in March 2022
  • In 2021, the NEA conducted surveys on career barriers for women working in the nuclear energy sector and gender-disaggregated data (employment, career trajectories, salaries). It is also collecting data on the number of male and female graduates in nuclear science and engineering in NEA member countries. Related publications are forthcoming

  • In cooperation with national organisations, the NEA organises joint international mentoring workshops to encourage female students to pursue STEM careers, including in the nuclear sector. Four virtual/hybrid workshops and one mentoring session were held in 2021 in Kenya, Japan, Russia, Spain, and Romania. Additional workshops are planned for 2022

  • The NEA develops targeted, multimedia communications to increase engagement and promote the contribution of women in the nuclear sector. A recent 2021 video campaign features NEA female scientists

  • Representatives from ministries, regulators, the nuclear industry, and technical support organisations of NEA member countries participated in four high-level meetings of the NEA Task Group on Improving Gender Balance in the Nuclear Sector in 2021 and February 2022, gathering data and identifying policy proposals supporting gender balance in the sector

  • The Global Forum on Nuclear Education, Science, Technology and Policy, an NEA initiative connecting academic institutions with NEA member countries and nuclear energy stakeholders, launched a working group on achieving gender balance in nuclear technology and academia in summer 2021

  • The Nuclear Education, Skills and Technology Framework (NEST), a multi-national NEA partnership to nurture the next generation of nuclear subject matter experts through international collaborative research projects, launched a strategy and roadmap on gender balance in September 2021.


  • OECD’s work on well-being and the OECD Well-being Framework highlight inequalities in all well-being outcomes by gender, age and educational attainment. These statistics are included in the regular How’s Life? reports, in the How’s Life? Well-Being database on OECD.Stat, and in country profiles for all OECD members

  • The OECD Better Life Index integrates information on gender inequality across its twelve domains of well-being

  • The OECD Time Use Database shows the average amount of time women and men spend in daily activities, with a focus on unpaid work

  • The OECD COVID-19 Recovery Dashboard mainstreams the gender-related aspects in measuring recovery efforts consistently with a broader set of SDG indicators

  • In January 2022, WISE published a paper on “Measuring the non-financial performance of business through the well-being lens”, which among other categories looks specifically into gender-related indicators of business performance

  • A seminar on COVID and gender inequality was co-organised with ELS as part of the COVID & Inequality webinar series in September 2021

  • The Metrics for Policies for Well-being and Sustainable Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) project, How’s Life in Latin America? Measuring Well-being for Policy Making report - launched in October 2021, features an analysis of gender disparities in well-being in the LAC region

  • The COVID-19 and Well-being: Life in the Pandemic – released in November 2021, charts the short-term evolution of current well-being, inequalities in well-being, and resources for future well-being during the pandemic. It also include discussion of how this evidence could inform longer-term rebuild strategies

  • WISE is preparing a 2022 update of Measuring Distance to SDGs Targets report, aiming to also strengthen the measurement of targets related to gender and the environment in the context of COVID from a long-term perspective of the 2030 Agenda (to be published in April 2022)

  • Gender is an integral part of the forecasting and policy evaluation tools the WISE Centre is developing in collaboration with the Ministry of Economy and Finance of Italy (late Spring 2022). Gender-specific models ensure that findings and policy recommendations can be tailored to the needs of women and men

  • In 2022, an EC-funded project on the state of discrimination in the EU and its impact on society, the economy and public finances will be launched. The project will assess how gender interacts with other individual characteristics to create cumulative disadvantage (e.g. women with a minority background)

  • WISE is leading the creation of the OECD Observatory on Social Mobility and Equal Opportunity, which aims at developing and mainstreaming evidence on social mobility, equal opportunity, and related policies. The Observatory will pay particular attention to the role of gender inequalities and discrimination

  • Gender-disaggregated data will be part of the update of the Child Well-being Data Portal (June/July 2022). Provisionally, over three-quarters of the (200+) indicators available on the updated Portal will be disaggregated by gender. A large share of these indicators will be new to the Portal.

Violence against Women

  • The OECD Report Eliminating Gender-based Violence: Governance and Survivor/Victim-centred Approaches was launched in December 2021. This publication explores how countries can strengthen public governance systems, respond to the needs and experiences of survivors/victims, and improve access to justice and accountability to effectively address gender-based violence

  • Truth Hurts”, the OECD Talk series on Preventing Violence Against Women, features practitioners addressing gender-based violence in conversation with OECD officials

  • ELS is collecting information about integrated services for survivors of gender-based violence. The questionnaires were circulated early 2022. A stand-alone report and a series of short briefs will be published in 2022-2023

  • The OECD is a partner in the Call to Action on Protection from Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies. This multi-stakeholder initiative aims to drive change and foster accountability in policies, systems and mechanisms, to mitigate gender-based violence risks against women and girls in settings of humanitarian crisis

  • OECD launched the pilot phase of the 2022 OECD Survey on Strengthening Governance and Survivor/Victim-centric Approaches to end  gender-based violence in December 2021. A comparative report is due for 2022

  • OECD’s Working Party on Gender Mainstreaming and Governance established its technical advisory group on tackling gender-based violence.