Environmental policy tools and evaluation


Ongoing empirical work sheds light on the economic effects of environmental policies.


Environmental taxation Trading systems Carbon pricing
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Provides major environmental benefits and raises significant tax revenue.


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Cost-effective policy tools, with a predefined environmental outcome.

Trading systems

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Costs to society per unit of carbon abatement that different policy instruments cause.


 Mortality impacts Morbidity impacts
Cost-benefit analysis
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For many environmental policies, changes in human mortality will be the impact with the largest economic value.

Mortality impacts

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Changes in human illnesses can be an important outcome of many environmental policies.

Morbidity impacts

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Comparing costs and benefits, including environmental impacts, is important for all aspects of policy making.


Policy reform Behavioural and experimental economics  
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Implementing major environmental policy reforms requires overcoming many different potential obstacles.

Policy reform

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