Publications & Documents

  • 31-July-2023


    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Korea 2023

    The 'Miracle on the River Han' catapulted Korea from developing country to a prosperous economy, driven in part by advancements in science, technology, and innovation. Being the second-highest R&D spender among OECD economies, Korea excels in key technologies, including semiconductors, 6G, and ICT infrastructure. Despite this remarkable progress, disparities remain between SMEs and chaebols, manufacturing and services, ICT and non-ICT industries, and urban and rural areas. Korea also grapples with societal and economic vulnerabilities, including an aging population, a significant carbon footprint, limited renewable energy use, and pronounced gender inequality. To further seize opportunities for equitable and inclusive growth, Korea must foster a shared national vision to develop science, technology, and innovation to address societal issues, enhance R&D policy implementation, promote excellent research, further internationalise, and broaden technology diffusion.
  • 28-July-2023


    Handbook on Measuring Digital Trade, Second Edition

    The Handbook on Measuring Digital Trade sets out a conceptual and measurement framework for digital trade which aligns with the broader standards for macro-economic statistics. It aims to help statistical compilers to address policymakers’ needs for statistical evidence on digital trade. It includes extensive compilation guidance, drawing upon substantive inputs and case studies from both developed and developing economies and covering a variety of survey and non-survey sources. A reporting template is also proposed to support compilers in the production and dissemination of digital trade statistics.
  • 27-July-2023


    Effective tax rates for R&D intangibles

    Tax incentives such as intellectual property regimes provide for reduced taxation of the income derived from research, development, and innovation related activities. By doing so, they lower the overall tax burden from investing in certain qualified intangible assets. This paper proposes a methodology to build indicators comparing the effect of income-based tax incentives for R&D and innovation on firms’ incentives to make R&D intangible investments. It provides insights into how such incentives affect firms’ decisions on whether, where and how much to invest in R&D intangibles. These indicators are used to illustrate the extent to which these tax incentives may create potential distortions to firms’ investment, protection and commercialisation decisions. The model is further developed to account for the design changes to such tax incentives introduced by the OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting minimum standard.
  • 13-July-2023


    Regulatory sandboxes in artificial intelligence

    This report focuses on regulatory sandboxes in artificial intelligence (AI), where authorities engage firms to test innovative products or services that challenge existing legal frameworks. Participating firms obtain a waiver from specific legal provisions or compliance processes to innovate. It highlights positive impacts like increased venture capital investment in fintech start-ups. It points out challenges, risks, and policy considerations for AI sandboxes, emphasizing interdisciplinary cooperation, building AI expertise, regulatory interoperability, and trade policy. It also addresses the importance of comprehensive criteria for eligibility and assessing trials, as well as the impact on innovation and competition.
  • 6-July-2023


    Harnessing "New Space" for Sustainable Growth of the Space Economy

    'New space', characterised by new commercial players bringing cutting-edge business techniques and funding methods to space activities, has brought disruptive innovation and democratised access to space. But there also reasons for concern, as this has led to an intensified use of the orbital environment, creating more congestion and debris. Furthermore, the vitality of the 'new space' ecosystem is under threat from economic shocks and market entrenchment. This G20 background paper examines the emergence of the 'new space' ecosystem over the last 15 years, its impact on the space sector and society at large and the role of governments in ensuring sustained and sustainable growth of the sector. The paper provides a definition of 'new space' activities to better target policy responses and suggests policy options to address these challenges.
  • 26-June-2023


    Consumer vulnerability in the digital age

    Protecting consumers when they are most vulnerable has long been a core focus of consumer policy. This report first discusses the nature and scale of consumer vulnerability in the digital age, including its evolving conceptualisation, the role of emerging digital trends, and implications for consumer policy. It finds that in the digital age, vulnerability may be experienced not only by some consumers, but increasingly by most, if not all, consumers. Accordingly, it sets out several measures to address the vulnerability of specific consumer groups and all consumers, and concludes with avenues for more research on the topic.
  • 26-June-2023


    Online product safety sweep report

    In October 2021, twenty-one OECD countries and partner economies participated in an online product safety sweep to identify the degree to which products were available for sale online despite (i) being banned or recalled, (ii) having inadequate labelling or (iii) not meeting voluntary or mandatory product safety standards. Results reveal that large volumes of unsafe products are readily traded across borders and a 79% average rate of non-compliance (or potential non-compliance) with product safety standards and laws. More needs to be done by online marketplaces and other retailers to identify and remove unsafe product listings and by consumer authorities to deter non-compliance.
  • 19-June-2023


    Promoting Digital Business Skills in the Republic of Moldova

    The Republic of Moldova (Moldova hereafter) has made digitalisation a policy priority. The country is currently preparing its Digital Transformation Strategy 2023-30, which will emphasise digital literacy, as well as digital business skills, with a view to improving private sector competitiveness. Digitalisation has already brought significant benefits to Moldova, where ICT has been one of the most dynamic sectors over the past years; yet Moldovan firms in non IT sectors remain at the beginning of their digitalisation journey. Skills shortages are a major barrier in that regard, particularly affecting SMEs who encounter more difficulties in attracting and retaining skilled workers, as well as up skilling or reskilling their workforces. Building on previous OECD work on digitalisation policies, the OECD provided guidance to Moldova throughout 2022 on how to build a conducive ecosystem and set the right policies to further advance the development and uptake of digital business skills among SMEs. This report presents an overview of those issues, looking at 1) the institutional and policy framework; 2) skills assessment and anticipation tools; and 3) SME specific support for digital skills development.
  • 19-June-2023


    Vulnerabilities in the semiconductor supply chain

    Semiconductors are a critical input into a wide range of downstream industries, including the wider information communications technology industry, electronics and motor vehicles. Semiconductor shortages can have large adverse effects on output in these industries, with ripple effects on the broader economy, as highlighted by recent supply chain disruptions. This paper maps cross-country and cross-sectoral dependencies in the semiconductor value chain based on new OECD Inter-Country Input-Output data that allow to analyse the semiconductor industry separately from the wider computer and electronics value chain. It further discusses policy options to reduce the economic consequences of shocks to the semiconductor value chain while preserving the benefits of global sourcing.
  • 31-May-2023

    English, PDF, 682kb

    Technology deep dives: Synthetic biology (policy brief)

    From alternative protein sources to rapid vaccine development, synthetic biology can address global challenges and transform industries. But are current governance frameworks up to the task?

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