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  • 4-January-2024

    English

    Migration and regional innovation in Australia

    This paper provides evidence on the impact of international migrants on regional innovation. The study combines administrative individual-level data covering all Australian residents with data on intellectual property rights applications such as patents, trademarks, and design rights. The analysis uses a standard shift-share instrument based on past migrant settlements to identify the causal effects of migration on innovation. Its four main findings are the following: First, on average, a one percentage point increase in the regional employment share of higher-educated migrants relative to total employment leads to a 4.8% rise in regional patent applications in the medium run (five years). Second, while migrants of all skill and education levels have a positive impact on patenting, those in scientific occupations have the largest effect. Third, regions with lower levels of patenting benefit relatively more from increases in migration compared to those with higher patenting levels. Fourth, there is no effect of migration on trademarks or design rights applications.
  • 15-December-2023

    English

    How can smart cities boost the net-zero transition? - Proceedings of the 3rd OECD Roundtable on Smart Cities and Inclusive Growth (3 July 2023)

    Cities have a pivotal role to play in achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. Smart city solutions can help enable and accelerate the net-zero transition by, among many others, curtailing energy use, accelerating the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy, improving resource efficiency, reducing transport demand, and fostering necessary behavioural change. This paper summarises the proceedings of the 3rd OECD Roundtable on Smart Cities and Inclusive Growth, which took place on 3 July 2023 at the OECD Headquarters in Paris. It discusses concrete solutions that can boost the net-zero transition, explores the barriers to scaling up smart city solutions and the enabling factors that can help overcome them, and proposes ways to strengthen the net-zero objective in the OECD Smart City Measurement Framework.
  • 13-December-2023

    English

    SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2024 - Building Resilience in Challenging Times

    The SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2024 – Building resilience in challenging times is a unique benchmarking tool to assess and monitor progress in the design and implementation of SME policies against EU and international best practice. It embraces the priorities laid out in the European Union’s SME Strategy for a sustainable and digital Europe and is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe, which provide a wide range of measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies. This report marks the fourth edition in this series, following assessments in 2012, 2016, and 2020. It tracks progress made since 2020 and offers the latest key findings on SME development and related policies in the countries of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). It also identifies emerging challenges affecting SMEs in the region and provides recommendations to address them. The 2024 edition benefits from an updated methodology that also offers a deeper analysis of policies to support the digital transformation of SMEs.
  • 13-December-2023

    English

    The impact of migration on regional labour markets in Australia

    This paper provides novel evidence on the regional impact of international migration on native employment and wages in Australia, using unique administrative individual-level panel data covering all residents from 2011 to 2018. Employing a differences-in-differences estimation strategy and a well-established shift-share instrumental variable (IV) approach based on census data from 1981, the study addresses potential endogeneity concerns related to migrant settlement patterns. The analysis reveals a positive impact of migration on native employment across all skill levels, ages, and genders, while wages remain unaffected. Examining the drivers of the employment effect shows that the arrival of migrants leads to a substantial increase of newly employed natives in the region and a decrease in the number of previously employed natives, with the former outweighing the latter. Most of the dynamic results from geographic mobility rather than labour market transition.
  • 8-December-2023

    English

    Advancing strategic priorities through the SDGs in Córdoba, Argentina

    The Province of Córdoba in Argentina has adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a holistic framework to promote social inclusion and well-being, and to address its territorial development challenges in an integrated way. Building on the recommendations from the OECD report on 'A Territorial Approach to the SDGs in Córdoba, Argentina' (2021), Córdoba’s policies have focused on the following four strategic axes: (i) gender and employment, (ii) education for employment, (iii) housing and access to essential services, and (iv) bridging the digital divide. This paper provides the Province of Córdoba with a set of recommendations to move these axes forward through a comprehensive approach using the SDG lens, including to bridge the digital divide in the labour market, ensure equitable access to services such as quality education, and create an inclusive and supportive environment that empowers women to fully participate in the workforce.
  • 7-December-2023

    English

    Promoting nature-based solutions in municipalities in Hungary

    Nature-based solutions (NbS) aim to maintain, enhance and restore ecosystems to address a variety of social, economic and environmental challenges, including climate change and biodiversity loss. This paper applies the OECD’s framework to provide recommendations for how to encourage the use of NbS by Hungarian municipalities. It illustrates some of the key challenges in the local implementation of NbS in Hungary and provides international examples of how they are tackled in diverse contexts. It also discusses the role of reforms about the enabling environment to mobilise further public and private investment in climate adaptation.
  • 7-December-2023

    English

    Towards balanced regional attractiveness in Ireland - Enhancing the delivery of the National Planning Framework

    Ireland is highly centralised and fast growing, creating co-ordination challenges in terms of delivering key investments and in key policy areas like transport, housing and education. Actors across levels of government recognise a need for a more coordinated approach to the delivery of the National Planning Framework, the principal spatial planning strategy of Project Ireland 2040, which includes also the National Development Plan (public investment).The report has three objectives which ultimately aim to support more balanced regional outcomes in Ireland: i) to clarify the gaps in terms of regional attractiveness across and within Ireland’s regions, including in terms of population and investment attraction; ii) to assess the ability for the National Planning Framework – in its current form – to address these gaps, and iii) to consider what multi-level governance reforms and attractiveness policies can be introduced or scaled to generate more territorially-balanced development.
  • 6-December-2023

    English

    A Territorial Approach to Climate Action and Resilience

    Global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C as early as in 2030, with current climate action falling short of meeting the Paris Agreement goals and a mounting risk of tipping beyond the ability of human societies to adapt. Building on broader OECD work on climate, this report proposes a new OECD territorial climate indicator framework and demonstrates that the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, adapt to climate impacts and address vulnerabilities varies across different territories. The report also presents a policy framework of 9 recommended actions to help decision makers unleash more effective climate action and resilience, both by integrating a territorial approach into national and subnational climate policies and by mainstreaming climate objectives into urban, rural and regional policies. The report summarises the analysis into a checklist for national and local governments to implement a territorial approach to climate and resilience policies, as well as a compendium of 36 best practices from cities, regions and countries from all around the world.
  • 5-December-2023

    English

    Financing SMEs for sustainability – Financial institution strategies and approaches - Results of an OECD survey of public and private financial institutions

    Banks and other financial institutions have a central role to play in supporting the net zero transition of the business sector and its millions of SMEs. They are working to integrate climate considerations in various aspects of their operations, including strategy, management and financial products. This calls for the development of new internal capacities and access to SME sustainability data and assessments which are currently difficult to obtain. This policy paper presents the findings of a 2023 survey of public development banks and private financial institutions, conducted by the by the OECD Platform on Financing SMEs for Sustainability. It provides insights on financial institutions' current approaches and plans for the integration of climate considerations in their SME operations. It also provides information on the offer of finance and non-financial support for SMEs’ net zero investments and on related SME climate-related data requirements.
  • 5-December-2023

    English

    Museums and local development in Lisbon, Portugal

    This case study assesses the strategies of the Museum of Lisbon as well as the related policies of Lisbon City Council to support local development. Through its five branches located across the city and its diverse partnerships with local stakeholders, the Museum of Lisbon has cemented its role as a community anchor institution. This case study focuses on the five dimensions featured in the OECD-ICOM Guide for Local Governments, Communities and Museums, namely the role of museums in: i) economic development, ii) urban regeneration, iii) education and creativity, iv) inclusion, health and well-being, and on iv) ways to mainstream the role of museums in local development.
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