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  • 18-July-2023

    English

    Financing Cities of Tomorrow - G20/OECD Report for the G20 Infrastructure Working Group under the Indian Presidency

    By 2050, the global population living in cities is projected to reach 5 billion, growing from 3.5 billion in 2015. Massive investment in infrastructure will be needed to accommodate this growth, and to adapt infrastructure to climate change and benefit from the digital transition. This report explores three ways to meet this challenge. Firstly, it outlines how new forms of urban planning can help to mobilise private finance for inclusive, resilient and sustainable urban investment. Secondly, it explores how leveraging private investment can help to strengthen cities capacity to support needed investment in a tighter fiscal environment. Finally, it considers the potential opportunities and challenges for mobilising sustainable finance – green, social and sustainable bonds and loans, sustainability-linked bonds and catastrophe bonds – for infrastructure investment by City Governments. The report also includes 17 short case studies from 12 countries that demonstrate innovative practices for creating the Cities of Tomorrow.
  • 18-July-2023

    English

    Leapfrogging and plunging in regional entrepreneurship performance in the United States, with European comparisons

    This paper analyses persistence and change in the regional league table of entrepreneurship performance in the United States in comparison with England and Wales and West Germany. It examines whether regional rankings in start-up and self-employment rates in the United States are as sticky over time as in these European countries over approximately century, half-century and 30-year periods, or whether the United States is different. It identifies the types of regions that improve markedly ('leapfroggers') or decline sharply ('plungers') in their league table positions and the reasons for these changes and compares the countries on these issues. The paper draws out policy implications on regional levelling-up of entrepreneurship activity. It also sets out an agenda for further research.
  • 6-July-2023

    English

    Impact indicators for culture, sports and business events - A guide - Part II

    This OECD Guide sets out a framework of indicators to measure the impact of global events on local development. Global events (including culture, sports and business events) can have a significant impact on local development. Yet measuring this impact in a consistent, reliable, and comprehensive way can be challenging. This Guide presents a set of indicators which events hosts can incorporate into their evaluation strategy to assess the economic, social, and environmental impact of their event. It offers practical guidance and advice on how to implement this framework, alongside examples of indicator use. In doing so, the Guide supports the OECD Recommendation on Global Events and Local Development, which helps countries and future hosts bring greater local benefits and legacies from global events. This Guide can be read alongside 'How to measure the impact of culture, sports and business events: A guide - Part I'.
  • 6-July-2023

    English

    How to measure the impact of culture, sports and business events - A guide, Part I

    This OECD Guide takes stock of the current advice, guidelines, and good practices for assessing the impact of global events. Global events (including culture, sports and business events) can have a significant impact on local development. Yet measuring this impact in a consistent, reliable and comprehensive way can be challenging. This Guide provides an overview of approaches to impact assessment, discusses the issues, challenges and considerations to be made in conducting impact evaluations, and offers a set of actions which event hosts can take to improve impact assessments. In doing so, the Guide supports the OECD Recommendation on Global Events and Local Development, which helps countries and future hosts bring greater local benefits and legacies from global events. This Guide can be read alongside 'Impact indicators for culture, sports and business events: A guide, Part II'.
  • 5-July-2023

    English

    Rethinking Regional Attractiveness in the New Global Environment

    The Rethinking Regional Attractiveness in the New Global Environment report highlights lessons learned from multiple regional case studies from five EU countries (Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Sweden), additional work with Latin American and Caribbean regions, and a series of webinars and one-on-one dialogues on rethinking regional attractiveness. The OECD’s innovative multidimensional approach to assessing regional attractiveness considers global engagement beyond international connections and economic factors alone. The methodology considers more than 50 indicators to develop regional attractiveness profiles covering six domains of attractiveness: economic attraction, connectedness, visitor appeal, natural environment, resident well-being, and land-use and housing. The report helps regional and national policy makers to understand how individual regions fare in a new global environment that continues to deal with the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis, compounded by the consequences of Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine and existing megatrends – all of which produce asymmetric impacts within and between countries and regions – and identify the policy levers available to enhance their attractiveness to the international target groups of investors, talent, and visitors. It also considers the need to co-ordinate across levels of government, across policy fields, and with private stakeholders, and highlights good practices to implement regional attractiveness policies.
  • 5-July-2023

    English

    From local to national: Delivering and financing effective long-term care

    This study provides an in-depth examination of the fiscal and governance decentralisation of long-term care (LTC) across OECD countries, offering projections of future fiscal burdens of LTC spending across levels of government. With rapid population ageing and a decrease in the supply of informal care, LTC spending has increased significantly. The paper introduces a novel methodology to estimate LTC expenditures across different government levels, including central and subnational governments. By analysing country cases, it explores the responsibilities assigned to each government level and the implications for service delivery and intergovernmental coordination. The study also discusses the overall anticipated increase of LTC expenditure to 2.3% of GDP by 2040, identifying the most impacted countries. This research contributes to our understanding of LTC systems, highlights the challenges of increasing LTC costs and provides insights for optimising governance and fiscal expenditure.
  • 4-July-2023

    English

    SME policy responses to the 2022/2023 energy crisis - Policy highlights and country experiences

    This paper takes stock of one year of policy responses to the 2022/2023 energy crisis triggered by Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine from the perspective of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this paper, 'SME policy responses' are defined as all government policies, whether SME-specific or not, which have lowered or affected in other way the price of electricity and natural gas paid by SMEs. The paper discusses three broad policy categories and related approaches implemented across countries: price-support measures; income-support measures; and complementary policies fostering the green transition. Overall, while emergency measures were initially centred on energy-intensive sectors, a larger number of SMEs was eventually covered as governments ramped up the scale and scope of their action due to the protraction of the Russian war in Ukraine. Going forward, as wholesale energy prices return to pre-war levels, price-support measures should be withdrawn. Income support could be used in some cases to help companies deal with still high retail energy prices, but the main policy focus should shift towards measures that improve the energy efficiency and environmental performance of SMEs.
  • 26-June-2023

    English

    The multi-level fiscal governance of ecological transition

    This paper investigates the role of fiscal federalism in driving ecological transition, a key challenge in the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals agenda. The ecological transition seeks a sustainable society that prioritises natural resource preservation and reduces environmental impacts. The study investigates the link between fiscal federalism institutions and ecological transition policies, focusing on regional and local governments’ role in implementing environmental goals. Despite subnational governments’ commitment to green objectives, comprehensive plan implementation has been limited due to local governments’ incentive schemes and capacity constraints. The paper examines the potential of fiscal federalism institutions, such as fiscal rules, transfers and capacity-building programs, to support ecological transition policies. The research emphasises engaging regional and local governments in the green agenda and highlights the need for tailored approaches in multi-level fiscal governance to effectively achieve environmental goals. By investigating fiscal federalism’s potential contribution to ecological transition, the paper offers valuable insights for policymakers addressing environmental challenges through a multi-level governance approach.
  • 23-June-2023

    English

    The Territorial Impact of the Earthquakes in Türkiye - Policy Note

    On 6 February 2023, two large earthquakes with magnitudes of 7.6 and 7.7 hit central and southern Türkiye and northern Syria resulting in widespread damage and fatalities in the region and leaving 3.3 million displaced. This note – prepared for a workshop to support the affected city of Gaziantep in March 2023 - provides an overview of the affected regions, and key issues and recommendations to support the recovery, based on international experience. It highlights that a plan should be made to support displaced residents for an extended period, identify high-risk families, train the workforce needed for the reconstruction effort, strengthen governance processes to protect recovery funds, coordinate reconstruction efforts across levels of government and with international donors, and engage communities in ambitious plans to improve infrastructure going forward.
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