OECD Employment Outlook 2023

Artificial Intelligence and the Labour Market

The 2023 edition of the OECD Employment Outlook examines the latest labour market developments in OECD countries. It focuses, in particular, on the evolution of labour demand and widespread shortages, as well as on wage developments in times of high inflation and related policies. It also takes stock of the current evidence on the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the labour market. Progress in AI has been such that, in many areas, its outputs have become almost indistinguishable from that of humans, and the landscape continues to change quickly, as recent developments in large language models have shown. This, combined with the falling costs of developing and adopting AI systems, suggests that OECD countries may be on the verge of a technological revolution that could fundamentally change the workplace. While there are many potential benefits from AI, there are also significant risks that need to be urgently addressed, despite the uncertainty about the short- to medium-term evolution of AI. This edition investigates how to get the balance right in addressing the possible negative effects of AI on labour market outcomes while not stifling its benefits.

Published on July 11, 2023 Latest available edition in: French, German, Spanish

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Editorial: Beyond the hype on AI – early signs of divides in the labour market
Executive summary
Key facts and figures (infographic)
Under pressure: Labour market and wage developments in OECD countries
Artificial intelligence and the labour market: Introduction
Artificial intelligence and jobs: No signs of slowing labour demand (yet)
Artificial intelligence, job quality and inclusiveness
Skill needs and policies in the age of artificial intelligence
Ensuring trustworthy artificial intelligence in the workplace: Countries’ policy action
Social dialogue and collective bargaining in the age of artificial intelligence
Statistical annex
Country notes11 chapters available
United Kingdom
United States
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