Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2015

Policies for Self-employment and Entrepreneurship

Published on November 13, 2015

Also available in: German, French

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2015 is the third edition in a series of annual reports that provide data and policy analysis on inclusive entrepreneurship. Inclusive entrepreneurship involves business start-up and self-employment activities that contribute to social inclusion as well as to economic growth, covering entrepreneurship activities by social groups such as youth, women, seniors, immigrants and the unemployed. The report contains data on the scale and scope of entrepreneurship and self-employment activities across EU Member States by social target groups, as well as the barriers they face. The report also contains special thematic chapters on supporting growth for entrepreneurs from disadvantaged and under-represented groups, effective coaching and mentoring, and the role of public procurement in supporting inclusive entrepreneurship. Each thematic chapter discusses current policy issues and challenges, and makes recommendations for EU policy makers. The report also provides inspiring policy-practice examples from each of the 28 EU Members.


Executive Summary
Reader's Guide
Inclusive entrepreneurship policy in the European Union
Inclusive entrepreneurship in Europe – activity rates and barriers5 chapters available
Self-employment and entrepreneurship by women
Self-employment and entrepreneurship by youth
Self-employment and entrepreneurship by seniors
Self-employment and entrepreneurship by the unemployed
Self-employment and entrepreneurship by the foreign-born
Policies for inclusive entrepreneurship2 chapters available
Supporting business growth among entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups
Effective coaching and mentoring for entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups
Country profiles: Policy examples and key inclusive entrepreneurship data29 chapters available
Austria: Der Mikrokredit (“Microcredit”)
Belgium: Hazo vzw
Bulgaria: The Entrepreneurship Development Network (EDN)
Croatia: Project A.C.T.I.V.E. – Activity and Creativity Through Ideas and Ventures = Employment
Cyprus: Agrotoepixeirein: Strengthening youth and female entrepreneurship in rural areas
Czech Republic: Self-employment support to people with health challenges in the Central Bohemia region
Denmark: Igangz
Estonia: StartSmart!
Finland: Start-up workshop for the under-30s
France: Ouvrir les portes de la banque aux jeunes entrepreneurs (“Open the bank's doors to young entrepreneurs”)
Germany: bundesweite gründerinnenagentur (BGA) (“National Agency for Women Start-up Activities and Services”)
Greece: Innovative Youth Entrepreneurship
Hungary: Snétberger Music Talent Centre
Ireland: Enterprise Ireland Female Entrepreneurship Strategy
Italy: FabriQ Social Enterprise Incubator
Latvia: Measures to encourage innovation and business start-ups among youth
Lithuania: Support for Self-employment
Luxembourg: Business Mentoring Programme
Malta: The My WoW Project
Netherlands: Bbz 2004, Besluit Bijstand voor Zelfstandigen (“Decision Support for Entrepreneurs”)
Poland: Wings for business – a workshop for entrepreneurial disabled people
Portugal: Project for the Promotion of Immigrant Entrepreneurship (PEI)
Romania: Fem.RRom
Slovak Republic: Financial Contribution for Self-Employment
Slovenia: P2P - Podjetnice za podjetnice do enakih možnosti v podjetništvu (“Female entrepreneurs for female entrepreneurs to gain equal opportunities in entrepreneurship”)
Spain: Red de Cooperación de Emprendedoras (“women-entrepreneur co-operation network”)
Sweden: Inkubator 55+
United Kingdom: Buy Sunderland First
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News release


New business ownership rates

In 2014, there were 30.6 million self-employed people in the European Union. Of these, 24.5 million were women, youth (15-24 years old), seniors (50-64 years old), those who were unemployed in the previous year or were born outside of the European Union. Although this accounts for the majority of self-employment activities, people in these groups are often less likely to be involved in business creation and self-employment activities than the mainstream population (see Figure). They typically face different and greater barriers to business creation and to growing their business than those in the mainstream. People from these groups can be successful in entrepreneurship if given the right support.

 This is a figure which illustrates the content and the message of the Missing Entrepreneurship 2015 publication of the OECD

FURTHER reading

OECD is working with the European Commission, DG Employment and Social Affairs to examine the barriers faced to business creation and self-employment by people who are disadvantaged or under-represented in entrepreneurship activities - youth, seniors, the disabled, women, ethnic minorities, the unemployed and others - and the public policy actions that can promote ans support these activities.


promoting, developing and financing entrepreneurship