Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities


The Culture Fix

Creative People, Places and Industries

Cultural and creative sectors and industries are a significant source of jobs and income. They are a driver of innovation and creative skills, within cultural sectors and beyond. They also have significant social impacts, from supporting health and well-being, to promoting social inclusion and local social capital. As national and local governments reconsider growth models in the wake of COVID-19, cultural and creative sectors can be a tool for a resilient recovery if certain longer-term challenges in the sector are addressed. The report outlines international trends with new data, including at subnational scale. It addresses issues in cultural and creative sectors in terms of employment, business development, cultural participation and funding, both public and private. It provides analysis of how these sectors contribute to economic growth and inclusion, taking into account the impact of COVID-19 related crisis on jobs and firms. Finally, it offers recommendations on how to capitalise on the role of cultural and creative sectors in national and local recovery strategies.

Available from June 03, 2022

In series:Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED)view more titles


Preface by the OECD
Executive summary
Report in brief
Defining and measuring cultural and creative sectors
Cultural participation as a driver of social and economic impact
Cultural and creative jobs and skills: who, what, where, and why it matters
Sectoral perspectives: Music and museums
Entrepreneurship and business development in cultural and creative sectors
Regional perspectives: CCS as drivers of regional and local development
Public and private funding for cultural and creative sectors
Regional Perspectives: Using culture and creativity to transform places
Sectors included in employment and business statistics by country
Glossary of terms
Regional perspectives: 4 case studies4 chapters available
Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Flanders, Belgium
Glasgow, UK
Klaipėda, Lithuania
Powered by OECD iLibrary

Key messages

Culture as a driver of employment

Cultural and creative employment account for up to 1 in 20 jobs in some OECD countries, and up to 1 in 10 jobs in major cities. These jobs are “future proof” (10% at high risk of automation vs. 14% in general workforce).

Culture as a driver of business growth

Cultural and creative sectors represent an average of 7% of all enterprises in OECD countries, and outpaced growth in the business economy (18% compared to 12% on average across OECD) prior to COVID-19 crisis.

Culture as a driver of consumption

While household spending on recreation and culture grew by 18% between 2011 and 2019, outpacing overall spending; it dropped by about 30% in 2020 relative to 2019 as a result of the COVID-19 crisis.