AI and the Future of Skills, Volume 2

Methods for Evaluating AI Capabilities

As artificial intelligence (AI) expands its scope of applications across society, understanding its impact becomes increasingly critical. The OECD's AI and the Future of Skills (AIFS) project is developing a comprehensive framework for regularly measuring AI capabilities and comparing them to human skills. The resulting AI indicators should help policymakers anticipate AI’s impacts on education and work. This volume describes the second phase of the project: exploring three different approaches to assessing AI. First, the project explored the use of education tests for the assessment by asking computer experts to evaluate AI’s performance on OECD’s tests in reading, mathematics and science. Second, the project extended the rating of AI capabilities to tests used to certify workers for occupations. These tests present complex practical tasks and are potentially useful for understanding the application of AI in the workplace. Third, the project explored measures from direct AI evaluations. It commissioned experts to develop methods for selecting high-quality direct measures, categorising them according to AI capabilities and systematising them into single indicators. The report discusses the advantages and challenges in using these approaches and describes how they will be integrated into developing indicators of AI capabilities.

Available from November 16, 2023

In series:Educational Research and Innovationview more titles


Executive summary
Eliciting expert knowledge: Methods and challenges
Assessing AI capabilities with education tests
Occupational tests
Assessing AI capabilities on occupational tests
A framework for characterising evaluation instruments of AI performance
AI direct tests: LNE and NIST evaluations
Towards a synthesis of language capability in humans and AI
Project goals, constraints and next steps
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