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Japan


  • 18-November-2022

    English

    From recovery to resilience: Designing a sustainable future for Fukushima

    Ten years ago, a devastating earthquake, tsunamis and nuclear accident in Japan took thousands of lives and affected millions of people. This unprecedented disaster generated numerous lessons for policymakers in Japan and around the world on how to prepare, respond to and recover from shocks, and build resilient communities, regions and societies. The 30 to 40 year process of decommissioning Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station offers the impetus and a rare window of opportunity to cultivate long-term, sustainable growth and resilience in the region and beyond. This Policy Brief presents the outcomes of the OECD-Japan Policy Dialogue on Developing Decommissioning Industry Clusters in Fukushima, conducted in 2019–20. It discusses the opportunities and challenges related to the decommissioning, and the policy options for sustainable recovery and development in the region. It also presents experiences and lessons relevant to Fukushima from other OECD regions and cities. While the brief is designed for local readers (e.g. policy makers, the private sector, academia, civil society), it also aims to raise the global profile of Fukushima’s ongoing reconstruction and recovery efforts.
  • 29-June-2021

    English

    A territorial approach to the Sustainable Development Goals in Kitakyushu, Japan

    Over the past decades, the city Kitakyushu, located in the southwest of Japan, has transformed from a manufacturing hub into a city putting strong emphasis on sustainability. The city has developed an SDG-based vision, which outlines the city’s main sustainable development targets and actions and sets up a governance framework with a strong focus on citizen participation and private sector engagement. Several local development challenges remain, including population decline, an ageing society and the lack of attractive job opportunities. The SDGs provide a framework to address those challenges in an integrated way. As reflected in Kitakyushu’s Voluntary Local Review and participation in the SDGs Future City initiative, 17 actions shape the local vision to foster sustainable development through, in particular, the transition to low-carbon energy production and a circular economy, female empowerment, inclusion of vulnerable groups and international cooperation.
  • 17-November-2020

    English

    The impact of COVID-19 on SME financing - A special edition of the OECD Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs Scoreboard

    The COVID-19 crisis has had a profound impact on SME access to finance. In particular, the sudden drop in revenues created acute liquidity shortages, threatening the survival of many viable businesses. The report documents an increase in demand for bank lending in the first half of 2020, and a steady supply of credit thanks to government interventions. On the other hand, other sources of finance declined, in particular early-stage equity. This paper, a special edition of Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs, focuses on the impacts of COVID-19 on SME access to finance, along with government policy responses. It reveals that the pre-crisis financing environment was broadly favourable for SMEs and entrepreneurs, who benefited from low interest rates, loose credit standards and an increasingly diverse offer of financing instruments. It documents the unprecedented scope and scale of the policy responses undertaken by governments world-wide, and details their key characteristics, and outlines the principal issues and policy challenges for the next phases of the pandemic, such as the over-indebtedness of SMEs and the need to continue to foster a diverse range of financing instruments for SMEs.
  • 14-April-2020

    English

    Synthesising good practices in fiscal federalism - Key recommendations from 15 years of country surveys

    The design of intergovernmental fiscal relations can help to ensure that tax and spending powers are assigned in a way to promote sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Decentralisation can enable sub-central governments to provide better public services for households and firms, while it can also make intergovernmental frameworks more complex, harming equity. The challenges of fiscal federalism are multi-faceted and involve difficult trade-offs. This synthesis paper consolidates much of the OECD’s work on fiscal federalism over the past 15 years, with a particular focus on OECD Economic Surveys. The paper identifies a range of good practices on the design of country policies and institutions related strengthening fiscal capacity delineating responsibilities across evels of government and improving intergovernmental co-ordination.
  • 26-May-2016

    English

    How's Life in Your Region? Country Factsheets

    The answer to the question "how's life?" depends on where you live. The factors that determine well-being can vary dramatically across the same country so national averages may not provide the full picture. See our regional indicators to see exactly how life is being lived.

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  • 11-April-2016

    English

    Japan’s demographic and policy challenges in 5 charts - Insights blog

    Look at Japan and you see the future of many OECD countries. Extreme demographic shifts are re-sculpting the country in dramatic ways, defining future challenges and demanding new policy responses. Blog by Bill Below, on the challenges faced and the opportunities available.

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  • 11-April-2016

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Japan 2016

    Japan is embarked on a demographic transition without precedent in human history: the population is both declining and ageing rapidly. This raises important questions about the country's future economic geography, as public policies will need both to respond to these shifts and also to shape them. Demographic change will have particularly important implications for the settlement pattern of the country, and this, in turn, will affect Japan's ability to sustain economic growth and the well-being of its citizens. This Review therefore focuses on the spatial implications of demographic change and the response of spatial policies to it, particularly as these interact with other policies aimed at sustaining the productivity growth that a 'super-ageing' Japan will need in order to maintain its future prosperity. The Japanese authorities have recently put in place a complex package of long-term spatial and structural policies aimed at meeting this challenge. Their experience should be of first-order interest to other OECD countries, as most face the prospect of rapid population ageing and many are also projected to experience significant population decline over the coming decades.
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  • 14-October-2014

    English

    Japan-OECD Policy Forum on Urban Development and Green Growth

    The Japan-OECD Policy Forum on Urban Development and Green Growth will address cities’ unique role in creating synergies between environmental and economic objectives to advance green growth. Asian cities in particular are at the centre of this challenge. This event is organised as a commemorative event for the 50th Anniversary of Japan's Accession to the OECD.

  • 6-October-2014

    English

    How's Life in Your Region - Country Notes

    Country notes outlining regional variations in health, jobs, safety, environment, access to services, civic engagement, housing, education, income, and employment. These notes are from the OECD publication "How's Life in Your Region?".

  • 6-October-2014

    English

    Regional Outlook 2014: Japan

    Getting regions and cities 'right', adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work, is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. View the country factsheets from the publication OECD Regional Outlook 2014.

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