War in Ukraine

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Rebuilding Ukraine by Reinforcing Regional and Municipal Governance

2 December 2022

Ministerial

Public Governance Ministerial: Building Trust and Reinforcing Democracy

17-18 November 2022

The OECD–Ukraine partnership

The OECD’s positions on Ukraine

Explore OECD work on Ukraine

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04/11/2022
For decades, governments have relied on space systems for intelligence gathering and satellite connectivity in remote areas, but today’s situation marks a distinct break with the past. Extended coverage, advances in digital technologies and, importantly, free and/or commercial availability of space products allow many new uses by both government and non-government actors. This brings important benefits for users and citizens, but also leads to new challenges in terms of data management, infrastructure and supply chain resilience, and international co-operation. This paper uses illustrations from the war in Ukraine to highlight recent developments in the sector, placing them in a broader context of digitalisation and government space investments. It discusses the growing importance of space technologies for society and provides policy options and resources from other strains of OECD work.
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04/11/2022
This policy response reflects on how policy actions can shape the future of Ukraine’s science system and contribute to post-war recovery. It draws on several OECD indicators and highlights the challenge of “brain drain” as a structural problem that is aggravated by Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine. It then makes the case for international co-ordination on talent circulation and exchange to prevent the irreversible loss of scientific expertise for key industries and the education of future generations in Ukraine. The policy response further argues that OECD countries can put in place new and strengthened scientific relationships with Ukraine, while also implementing temporary measures to assist both displaced scientists and those remaining in their posts under very challenging conditions.
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03/11/2022
This paper provides an overview of how the Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine illustrates immediate threats posed by disinformation, as well as governance responses to countering it. It focuses on disinformation in relation to the Russian armed aggression of Ukraine, including actors, tools and narratives used to justify the invasion and maintain support for the war. The paper also identifies government efforts to counter the spread of disinformation, including efforts to ensure the spread of accurate content, promote international co-operation, and support civil society and media actors to build resilience to the spread of false and misleading content.
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13/10/2022
This in-depth review of the energy policies of Kazakhstan follows the same format used by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to review member countries. It was conducted under the auspices of the EU4Energy programme, which is being implemented by the IEA and the European Union, along with the Energy Community Secretariat and the Energy Charter Secretariat.Kazakhstan has made ambitious commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the role of renewables in its energy supply, but dependence on large reserves of inexpensive domestic coal and a lack of flexible generating capacity make these a challenge. Oil continues to provide much of the country’s export earnings and government revenue, while many oil-importing countries have pledged to reduce consumption of fossil fuels, and most oil exports currently transit the Russian Federation. Low domestic energy prices are a social priority for the government, but have made it difficult to promote energy efficiency and stimulate commercial production of gas for the domestic market.This report assesses the energy sector and related challenges facing Kazakhstan and proposes policy recommendations to improve sector governance, energy efficiency and security of supply.
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13/10/2022
Moldova is largely dependent on fossil fuel and electricity imports, with the vast majority of its natural gas imports coming from the Russian Federation. Moldova has made considerable efforts to diversify their supply sources and increase the security of both electricity and gas supply. Further integration with Europe for both gas and electricity imports is ongoing as Moldova prioritises moving away from Russian sources of energy. The March 2022 emergency synchronisation with ENTSO-E, triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, has pushed Moldova closer to full electricity trade with Europe. Since Moldova signed an Association Agreement with the European Union in 2014, it has been working to adopt core EU legislation. Moldova’s National Energy Strategy for 2030 reflects this work, with key government priorities including: ensuring the security of energy supply; further developing competitive markets and integration on a regional and European level; and ensuring the sustainability of the energy sector while mitigating the effects of climate change. Increasing the share of renewables in Moldova’s energy mix remains key to meeting the country’s priorities as it aims to enhance regional and European integration.This report assesses the energy sector and the related challenges facing Moldova, and it proposes policy recommendations to improve energy security, support the development of free and competitive energy markets, and accelerate its transition to a more sustainable, clean and efficient energy system.
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04/10/2022
This note assesses the immediate impact of Russia’s large-scale aggression against Ukraine on global insurance markets. It addresses direct impacts of the war on the industry, such as losses arising in certain specialty lines and restrictions on the provision of insurance services, and indirect impacts, such as increased macroeconomic and financial market volatility, that in turn affects insurers.
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04/10/2022
The large-scale aggression by Russia against Ukraine drastically changed how and which administrative services are delivered to its citizens. Physical facilities and communications infrastructure have been damaged or occupied in many areas of the country. This created the need to adapt or propose new ways of providing administrative services and the creation of entirely new services. The system of service delivery has had to be relaunched, adapted and even transformed. During the first days of the war there were almost no services. After three months the system had adapted to wartime conditions. The Ukrainian system of administrative service delivery has proved itself resilient in terms of safety and security, and in terms of responses to the new needs of the population. The simplification, deregulation and digitalisation efforts of the government will continue after the war.
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29/08/2022
In the first half of 2022, many electricity markets continued to experience skyrocketing prices, particularly in Europe, reflecting deep uncertainties over both fossil fuel supplies and the economic outlook. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine shattered any hope of energy prices declining in the near term following the strong increases seen in the second half of 2021. In Europe, the situation prompted heightened ambitions and strengthened policies to advance clean energy transitions and reduce dependency on fuel imports. But in the short term, it also resulted in a partial return to coal-fired electricity generation. Sluggish economic growth is expected to dampen global electricity demand growth in 2022 and 2023 to less than half the rate seen in 2021. Despite gas-to-coal switching and low nuclear power plant availability in Europe, global electricity sector emissions may decline slightly in 2022 and 2023 – reflecting a combination of slowing power demand and displacement of fossil fuels by renewables.This July 2022 update of the IEA Electricity Market Report presents our latest forecasts for global electricity demand, supply and emissions through 2023. In light of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, we also provide a special focus on the situation in Europe, discussing recent developments and future plans.
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29/08/2022
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has exacerbated the tightening supply of natural gas underway since mid-2021, further pushing up prices for consumers and leading to fuel switching and demand destruction. It also casts longer-term uncertainty on market prospects for natural gas, especially in developing markets where it was to play a central role in energy transitions.Natural gas demand is expected to decline in 2022 and remain subdued up to 2025. Europe’s surging pursuit of LNG to phase out Russian pipeline supply and limited global LNG export capacity additions raise the risk of prolonged tight markets. Faster development and implementation of clean energy transition policies, especially in mature gas markets, would ease price competition and help emerging markets access supplies that can contribute to short-term improvements in carbon intensity and air quality.This new issue of the Gas Market Report offers a medium-term forecast and analysis of global gas markets to 2025, as well as a review of recent developments in major regional gas markets during the first half of 2022.
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29/08/2022
Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions: From Today’s Challenges to Tomorrow’s Clean Energy Systems is a new report by the International Energy Agency that looks at how nuclear energy could help address two major crises – energy and climate – facing the world today. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the disruptions in global energy supplies that it has fuelled have made governments rethink their energy security strategies, putting a stronger focus on developing more diverse and domestically based supplies. For multiple governments, nuclear energy is among the options for achieving this. At the same time, many governments have in recent years stepped up their ambitions and commitments to reach net zero emissions. Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions expands upon the IEA’s landmark 2021 report, Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector. It does so by exploring in depth nuclear power’s potential role as a source of low emissions electricity that is available on demand to complement the leading role of renewables such as wind and solar in the transition to electricity systems with net zero emissions.In this context, the report examines the difficulties facing nuclear investment, particularly in advanced economies, in the areas of cost, performance, safety and waste management. It considers the additional challenge of meeting net zero targets with less nuclear power than envisioned in the IEA Net Zero Roadmap, as well as what kind of cost targets could enable nuclear power to play a larger role in energy transitions. For countries where nuclear power is considered an acceptable part of the future energy mix, the new report identifies the potential policy, regulatory and market changes that could be implemented in order to create new investment opportunities. It also looks at the role of new technologies, particularly small modular reactors, and their potential development and deployment.
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29/08/2022
Russia’s unprovoked invasion of Ukraine has had a dramatic impact on the global energy system. Russia was the world’s largest oil and natural gas exporter in 2021, and energy markets have been thrown into turmoil, with major energy security and supply risks worldwide.Substantial gas resources currently are being produced that do not make it to market because they are lost to flaring and leaks across the oil and gas supply chain. This report estimates that nearly 210 billion cubic metres (bcm) of natural gas could be made available to gas markets by a global effort to eliminate non-emergency flaring and reduce methane emissions from oil and gas operations.If countries that currently export natural gas to the European Union were to implement these two measures, they could increase gas exports by more than 45 bcm using existing infrastructure, equivalent to almost one third of Russian gas exports to the EU in 2021.
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05/08/2022
Russia’s aggression against Ukraine has been since February 2022 undermining the latter’s capacity to harvest and export crops. A reduction in export capacity from Ukraine and Russia, and rising energy and fertiliser prices are pushing up international food prices, thereby threatening global food security. Findings presented in this brief suggest that the full loss of Ukraine’s capacity to export together with a 50% reduction in Russian wheat export could lead to a 34% increase in international wheat prices in the marketing year 2022/23.
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04/08/2022
Severe disruptions to global markets caused by Russia’s war on Ukraine have exposed vulnerabilities to the security of the supply of raw materials critical for industrial production and for the green transition. These supply chain vulnerabilities are the result of export restrictions, bilateral dependencies, a lack of transparency and persistent market asymmetries, including the concentration of production in just a few countries. A collective and co-ordinated approach among OECD countries can contribute to economic security, while preserving the benefits of open markets and a rules-based international trading system.
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03/08/2022
Given the unprecedented number and unique profile of Ukrainians fleeing their country in a short time following its invasion by Russia, as 50% of refugees are children, host country schools are facing challenges to increase their capacity and address the needs of the new refugee students. For children, returning to school can provide a sense of security and stability, while ensuring that they can have appropriate opportunities of developing their skills and do not suffer even larger losses later in life. Beyond the short-term integration of refugee students in schools and classrooms, host countries will have to deal with the promotion of the inclusion of students that will remain in the countries on a longer term. Early assessments, individualised curricula, language learning support and more will be key elements in the education of Ukrainian refugee students. Due to considerable uncertainty regarding the length of stay of refugee students from Ukraine in host countries, education systems will need to be flexible in meeting the needs of refugee students and providing opportunities to develop skills needed to prepare them for career paths after their return to Ukraine. Moreover, coordinated exchanges with Ukrainian policy makers and the provision of opportunities for students to stay connected with Ukrainian curriculum, language and culture are also important as many refugees may wish to return to Ukraine in the future. In sum, a holistic approach will be needed to address all the needs of Ukrainian refugee students, from a learning, social and emotional perspective.
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03/08/2022
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has placed a heavy burden on host country schools and teachers. Indeed, refugee students need support beyond the development of academic skills, including assistance to integrate into the host society and support for the well-being. The challenge of providing this support falls largely on teachers in host countries, who may not have training to teach children who do not speak the language of instruction and who may require trauma counselling. Teachers need support in order to best respond to rapidly changing conditions and refugee students’ needs, including working closely with school leadership and non-instructional support staff and receiving relevant training. Moreover, countries will need to rely on Ukrainian teaching staff if faced by a personnel shortage. This will help them provide a sense of familiarity to the refugee students in both language and curriculum as students transition to the host language and host country curriculum. Additionally, this strategy can be rewarding for the refugee teachers, providing them with a sense of purpose as well as financial stability. Overall, implementing policies and allocating resources based on evidence from successful strategies can build capacity and provide teachers with needed support, with OECD countries providing examples of good practices.
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27/07/2022
The historic mass outflow of people fleeing the unprovoked Russian war of aggression against Ukraine has placed significant pressures on the reception capacities of OECD and EU countries. Ukrainian refugees face a variety of settlement-related challenges. Perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is access to housing. OECD countries have rallied private citizens, NGOs, the private sector and government services to provide housing, but regardless of the short-term solutions identified, the transition to more durable accommodation is a looming challenge. This brief presents an overview of specific policy decisions taken by these countries regarding the short-term housing of refugees from Ukraine and challenges identified to date. It seeks to identify relevant considerations for those countries that are beginning to adapt their thinking regarding Ukrainians’ prospects for longer-term stays.
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27/07/2022
The unprovoked war of aggression of Russia against Ukraine on 24 February 2022 has generated a historical mass outflow of people fleeing the conflict, unseen in Europe since World War II. While there is a lot of uncertainty regarding the potential length of stay of these refugees in their host countries, many of the working-age adults will seek to work during their stay. This brief reviews the distribution of Ukrainian refugees across European countries and their demographic characteristics. It discusses the existing evidence about the labour market integration of refugees, and applies this information to the case of Ukrainian refugees to provide estimates of the number of active and employed Ukrainian refugees in European countries by the end of 2022 and compares these results to the impact of previous large inflows of refugees, in particular the 2014-17 arrivals.
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27/07/2022
Russia’s large-scale aggression against Ukraine on 24 February 2022 has forced millions of Ukrainians to flee the country. This historic mass outflow, unseen in Europe since World War II, has sparked an unprecedented mobilisation of institutions and host communities in OECD countries to offer support. Effective communication constitutes an essential tool for co-ordinating this crisis response, enabling Ukrainian refugees to access relevant information about their rights and services provided to them, while also helping to prevent particularly vulnerable migrants from becoming victims of human trafficking and other crimes. In parallel, many hosting countries have used targeted communication to co-ordinate individual and civic society support and to inform the public about crisis responses, migration and integration policies. This policy brief examines communication strategies and best practices across the OECD countries in the current crisis context, drawing from results of a series of OECD NETCOM meetings.
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22/07/2022
This note examines which regional economies in Europe are most exposed to rising gas prices on the basis of their dependency on gas intensive manufacturing sectors such as chemicals or basic metals. Based on OECD calculations we find that the employment shares of the most gas-intensive manufacturing sectors are largest in some regions of Central Europe and Northern Italy, as well as in certain regions of Sweden and Finland.
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22/07/2022
The impacts of the war in Ukraine will be felt severely within OECD economies, especially in border regions on the front-line of the humanitarian refugee crisis. The economic impacts, in particular those driven by rising energy prices, will also be spatially differentiated, affecting some regions more than others. Italy is no exception, with gas-intensive industries concentrated in northern regions, and wheat-based food and farming prevailing in southern regions and islands. While, overall, Russia accounted for a minor share of Italian exports, some regions and industries are more vulnerable than others to falls in bilateral trade, including destinations popular with high per-capita expenditure Russian tourists.
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Copyright: OECD; Shutterstock; Child on a swing: Shutterstock/Drop of light
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