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Publications & Documents


  • 31-May-2023

    English, PDF, 682kb

    Technology deep dives: Synthetic biology (policy brief)

    From alternative protein sources to rapid vaccine development, synthetic biology can address global challenges and transform industries. But are current governance frameworks up to the task?

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  • 25-May-2023

    English

    The green side of productivity - An international classification of green and brown occupations

    This paper describes the methodology used for crosswalking occupation-based measures of Green ('environmentally friendly') and Brown ('polluting') jobs from the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to the International Standard Occupation Classification (ISCO) 08 at the most detailed (4-digit) level. The original, task-based Greenness scores by Vona et al. (2018) are provided at the 8-digit SOC level, and the industry-based Brownness measures are provided in 6-digit SOC. Crosswalking these measures requires several choices in terms of weighting and aggregating, which this paper describes in detail. The robustness of the resulting measures to the different weighting options and underlying assumption is tested using Linked Employer-Employee data from Portugal. An empirical application to the Productivity-Greenness link at the firm level shows the robustness of this link to different weighting choices, and confirms that all of the different measures derived are consistent in measuring the Greenness of jobs.
  • 24-May-2023

    English

    Public research funding in Sweden - Optimising the system in response to multiple demands

    This report provides input to a national review of the public research funding system in Sweden. It is designed to inform a broader dialogue that is taking place amongst different research stakeholders in Sweden. The report contains proposals and options for changes for Swedish public funding of research and innovation to effectively promote research excellence, support innovation and respond to societal needs. These proposals are supported by relevant international examples. The analysis takes into account insights from the OECD review of innovation policy in Sweden in 2016 and recent OECD work on different aspects of public research funding and research infrastructure.
  • 17-May-2023

    English

    Digital Skills for Private Sector Competitiveness in Uzbekistan

    Since 2019, digital transformation has been a clear policy priority in Uzbekistan. While the country has made significant progress in terms of Internet access, quality and affordability, digital uptake among firms remains low. This lack of digital skills seems to be a limiting factor affecting the digital transformation of business. Based on recent OECD work on digitalisation, this report examines what is holding back the digital upskilling of businesses in Uzbekistan. It suggests three sets of policy actions: (1) developing a supportive institutional framework for the digital uptake of firms; (2) raising firms’ awareness of the importance of acquiring digital and complementary skills; and (3) expanding existing support to digitalise while addressing the gender digital divide.
  • 17-May-2023

    English

    Improving Framework Conditions for the Digital Transformation of Businesses in Kazakhstan

    In recent years, Kazakhstan has developed a comprehensive digital government system and begun to create the legal and regulatory conditions for the digital transformation of the country’s economy. The digitalisation of the private sector requires further improvements in framework conditions, such as reliable access to broadband services, quality and affordability of networks, and digital security for businesses. Based on recent OECD work on digital framework conditions, this report examines the legal and operational environment that is holding back the digital transformation of private firms in Kazakhstan. The report suggests three sets of actions: (1) addressing the remaining Internet quality and connectivity gaps, notably by mobilising the regional public sector to improve the quality and density of networks, and by expanding the inclusion of the private sector in the policy-making process; (2) improving competition in, and the investment attractiveness of, the telecom sector by setting-up an independent national telecom regulator, and by developing a targeted investment attraction strategy to prepare for deployment of next-generation communication networks; and (3) adapting the regulatory and policy framework for firms adapting to new digital challenges and raising their awareness of digital security.
  • 26-April-2023

    English

    Subsidies to the steel industry - Insights from the OECD data collection

    This report analyses subsidies provided to steel producers by examining firm-level data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and conducting desk research. It reveals that subsidy trends persist even in the face of existing overcapacity. Between 2008 and 2020, steel companies in partner economies obtained an average of 10.7 times more subsidies per crude steel production capacity unit than their counterparts in OECD countries. These subsidies took the form of cash grants, cash awards, and cost reimbursements. The report also finds that the national context significantly influences a jurisdiction's inclination to support its steel sector and the transparency of such subsidies. Some jurisdictions have prioritised the growth of their domestic steel industry by establishing firm goals for crude steel production, export, or concentration. Meanwhile, others have engaged in international collaboration to address global challenges related to the decarbonisation of the steel industry.
  • 26-April-2023

    English

    Technology assessment for emerging technology - Meeting new demands for strategic intelligence

    The rapid pace of technological change, coupled with a pressing need for solutions to address grand societal challenges and global crises, heightens the challenge for policy makers to develop science, technology and innovation policies at speed, in situations of high uncertainty and, in some cases, around potentially controversial technology fields. Technology assessment (TA) has a long history of providing decision-makers with timely strategic intelligence on emerging technologies. Current demands are pushing TA to evolve in order to fulfil diverse functions: to illuminate the societal, economic, environmental and other consequences of new technologies; to inform public opinion; and to guide research and development. Drawing on nine case studies, this report analyses the response of TA practices to these changing drivers and demands to support policies for new and emerging technologies. It also identifies a set of principles to guide good contemporary TA practice.
  • 21-April-2023

    English

    ANBERD (Analytical Business Enterprise Research and Development) database

    Data set on R&D expenditure by industry which addresses the problems of international comparability and breaks in the time series of the official business enterprise R&D data.

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  • 20-April-2023

    English

    Good practice principles for public communication responses to mis- and disinformation

    This document presents the principles of good practice for public communication responses to mis- and disinformation. The Principles aim to help governments counter mis- and disinformation via the public communication function and other policy responses through strengthening domestic and international media and information ecosystems and reinforcing democracy. This document identifies nine common principles underpinning good practices for how governments can engage with partners across citizens, civil society and the private sector, based on evidence and interventions observed around the world during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
  • 20-April-2023

    English

    Cost and uptake of income-based tax incentives for R&D and innovation

    Despite the increasing adoption of income-based tax incentives for R&D and innovation in the OECD area and beyond, evidence on the availability, design, generosity and actual cost of these incentives remains scarce. This report helps fill this gap by documenting government efforts to provide preferential tax treatment of economic outputs of innovation activities. Drawing on the responses of national contact points to the OECD KNOWINTAX surveys carried out in 2020 and 2021, it presents new evidence on the cost (foregone tax revenues) and uptake of income-based-tax incentives by businesses in 2019, and tracks their distribution by firm size and industry and their evolution over the 2000-2019 period.
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