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Publications & Documents


  • 18-July-2023

    English

    COVID-19, resilience and the interface between science, policy and society

    This is the last in a series of three reports that explore how science was mobilised in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The report focuses on system-level issues and highlights challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the organisation of science systems and that need to be addressed to improve the resilience of these systems and their capacity to address complex societal challenges and crises. The analysis is structured around five interconnected themes: the strategic mobilisation of science capacity; managing conflicting priorities; co-ordination and collaboration across levels of governance; transdisciplinary and reflexive science; and dynamic and system-oriented governance. Key areas for intervention and more specific policy actions are identified under each theme and provide a framework for systemic action to strengthen science in support of socio-technological transitions.
  • 18-July-2023

    English

    COVID-19 and science for policy and society

    This is the second in a series of three reports that explore how science was mobilised in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The focus is on science for policy – research agenda setting, scientific advice and public communication and engagement. The report includes recommendations and options for policy action to improve the resilience of national science systems and their capacity to cooperate internationally in response to crises. The context in each country is different, as illustrated by the many case studies included in the report, and so the priority attached to these recommendations and the specific details of how they might be implemented will vary. They are provided as an overall framework for science policymakers and other actors, including research funders and research providers, to consider.
  • 6-July-2023

    English

    Harnessing "New Space" for Sustainable Growth of the Space Economy

    'New space', characterised by new commercial players bringing cutting-edge business techniques and funding methods to space activities, has brought disruptive innovation and democratised access to space. But there also reasons for concern, as this has led to an intensified use of the orbital environment, creating more congestion and debris. Furthermore, the vitality of the 'new space' ecosystem is under threat from economic shocks and market entrenchment. This G20 background paper examines the emergence of the 'new space' ecosystem over the last 15 years, its impact on the space sector and society at large and the role of governments in ensuring sustained and sustainable growth of the sector. The paper provides a definition of 'new space' activities to better target policy responses and suggests policy options to address these challenges.
  • 5-July-2023

    English

    Very Large Research Infrastructures - Policy issues and options

    Very Large Research Infrastructures (VLRIs) are unique, complex undertakings with a strong international dimension that play a critical role in frontier research in most scientific domains. VLRIs require considerable care in their construction and operation, as well as very substantial investments and technological innovations. Recent evolutions in the political, socio-economic and scientific context are challenging their established planning and management models. This policy report identifies and analyses good practices and presents a series of lessons learned regarding the establishment of VLRIs, options for improving their use and operation, as well as more strategic considerations that VLRI managers, funders and decision-makers should take into consideration.
  • 3-July-2023

    English

    COVID-19 and policy for science

    This is the first in a series of three reports that explore how science was mobilised in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The focus is on policy for science – access to data and information, the role of infrastructures and the interface between academia and industry. The report includes recommendations and options for policy action to improve the resilience of national science systems and their capacity to co-operate internationally in response to crises. The context in each country is different, as illustrated by the many case studies included in the report, and so the priority attached to these recommendations and the specific details of how they might be implemented will vary. They are provided as an overall framework for science policymakers and other actors, including research funders and research providers, to consider.
  • 30-June-2023

    English

    OECD Biotechnology Update

    Read our newsletter to stay up-to-date with all the latest OECD work on biotechnology.

    Related Documents
  • 27-June-2023

    English

    OECD SME and Entrepreneurship Outlook 2023

    Over the past few years, the global economy has suffered profound shocks that have had a marked impact on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurs. While government support protected SMEs from the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, new threats have emerged. Rising geopolitical tensions and global financial risks, high inflation, tightening monetary and fiscal policies, labour shortages, high trade barriers and slowing integration into global value chains all contribute to a more challenging business environment for SMEs. Meanwhile, there is an urgent need to accelerate the contribution of SMEs and entrepreneurship to the green and digital transitions and help them navigate a changing international trade and investment landscape. Against this background, the OECD SME and Entrepreneurship Outlook 2023 provides new evidence on recent trends in SME performance, changing business conditions, and policy implications. It reflects on the broad underlying theme of SME integration into a series of networks, including global production and supply-chain networks and the role of women led-businesses in international trade, knowledge and innovation networks, and skill ecosystems, as well as the main policies in place to ensure SMEs can integrate these networks and benefit from the ongoing transformations they go through. The report also contains statistical country profiles that benchmark the 38 OECD across a set of indicators.
  • 26-June-2023

    English

    Artificial Intelligence in Science - Challenges, Opportunities and the Future of Research

    The rapid advances of artificial intelligence (AI) in recent years have led to numerous creative applications in science. Accelerating the productivity of science could be the most economically and socially valuable of all the uses of AI. Utilising AI to accelerate scientific productivity will support the ability of OECD countries to grow, innovate and meet global challenges, from climate change to new contagions. This publication is aimed at a broad readership, including policy makers, the public, and stakeholders in all areas of science. It is written in non-technical language and gathers the perspectives of prominent researchers and practitioners. The book examines various topics, including the current, emerging, and potential future uses of AI in science, where progress is needed to better serve scientific advancements, and changes in scientific productivity. Additionally, it explores measures to expedite the integration of AI into research in developing countries. A distinctive contribution is the book’s examination of policies for AI in science. Policy makers and actors across research systems can do much to deepen AI’s use in science, magnifying its positive effects, while adapting to the fast-changing implications of AI for research governance.
  • 19-June-2023

    English

    Engaging citizens in innovation policy - Why, when and how?

    Innovation policies need to be socially embedded for them to effectively contribute to addressing major societal challenges. Engaging citizens in innovation policymaking can help define long-term policy priorities, enhance the quality and legitimacy of policy decisions, and increase the visibility of innovation in society. However, engaging all groups in society and effectively integrating citizens' inputs in policy processes is challenging. This paper discusses why, when and how to engage citizens in innovation policy making. It also addresses practical considerations for organising these processes, such as reaching out to diverse publics and selecting the optimal mix of methods and tools.
  • 13-June-2023

    English

    The contribution of R&D specialist institutions to R&D performance - Findings from the NESTI 2022 pilot data collection

    Long-standing policy interest in the role of organisations specialised in research and experimental development (R&D) raises questions about how these organisations are classified under different institutional sectors and contribute to R&D statistics This paper reports on the findings of the pilot data collection conducted in 2022. The results show a diverse range of R&D specialist ecosystems as well as major reporting gaps. The ultimate aim of this exercise and its recommendations is to demonstrate how several OECD countries are able to provide meaningful statistical results using OECD guidance and promote the mainstreaming of reporting into future national and OECD R&D statistics.
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