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Publications & Documents


  • 3-June-2021

    English

    Evolving public-private relations in the space sector - Lessons learned for the post-COVID-19 era

    Where is the space sector headed? How can public and private actors work together to solve mutual challenges and sustain growth? What is the role of government programmes and funding? This paper addresses these and other questions by reviewing the evolving relationship between public and private actors in the space sector over the last two decades, based on case studies from North America, Europe and Asia. It provides new evidence for navigating the post-Covid-19 era, notably by exploring the range of government roles in supporting space sector innovation and expansion, from funder and developer of space programmes to partner and enabler of private sector growth.
  • 2-June-2021

    English

    Safety of novel foods and feeds and on the harmonisation of regulatory oversight in biotechnology

    These two documents compile information on activities related to the assessment of the safety of products derived from modern biotechnology, environmental safety (biosafety) and the safety of novel foods and feeds, at the international level between April 2020 and March 2021. The information was provided by OECD Members, partner countries and observer organisations participating in the work.

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  • 31-May-2021

    English

    OECD Secretary-General's Report to Ministers 2021

    This edition of the OECD Secretary-General's Report to Ministers outlines the main achievements of the OECD in 2020, notably the Organisation’s efforts to help manage the COVID-19 crisis and pave the way towards a stronger, more inclusive, resilient and green recovery. It describes the OECD’s work across major policy areas, with a focus on health, employment, inequalities, economics and tax, education, and the environment, among others. The report outlines the activities of the Secretary-General and his office, as well as those of OECD directorates, the Secretariats of Entities within the OECD family and OECD Social Partners. The OECD works on finding evidence-based solutions to a range of social, economic and environmental challenges, promoting 'Better Policies for Better Lives'. The OECD is one of the world’s largest and most trusted sources of comparable statistical data and research. The OECD serves as not only a pathfinder for new narratives and new initiatives at the global level, but also as a ‘do’ tank ready to support members and partners with our data, standards and evidence-based policy advice.
  • 27-May-2021

    English

    Regional Integration in the Union for the Mediterranean - Progress Report

    Regional Integration in the Union for the Mediterranean: Progress Report monitors major trends and evolutions of integration in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The Report examines five domains of regional integration, namely trade integration, financial integration, infrastructure integration, movement of people, as well as research and higher education. It presents an original analysis of the patterns and challenges of integration in the Euro-Mediterranean region, which highlights the interdependence of the areas examined – e.g. how to increase regional trade without affordable transport connectivity? The Report offers new insights, based on specific quantitative and qualitative performance indicators that are monitored over time. Almost 100 graphs and tables in the report cover data for the 42 member countries of the Union for the Mediterranean and, when relevant, for partners of the region. The Report includes key takeaways and policy recommendations on how to foster regional integration in each of the five domains.
  • 26-May-2021

    English

    Productivity dispersion and sectoral labour shares in Europe

    The stability of the labour share of income is a fundamental feature of macroeconomic models, with broad implications for the shape of the production function, inequality, and macroeconomic dynamics. However, empirically, this share has been slowly declining in many countries for several decades, though its causes are subject of much debate. This paper analyses the drivers of labour share developments in Europe at a sectoral level. We begin with a simple shift-share analysis which demonstrates that the decline across countries has been primarily driven by changes within industries. We then use aggregated microdata from CompNet to analyse drivers of sector-level labour shares and to decompose their effects into shifts in the sector average or reallocation of resources between firms. Our main findings are that the advance of globalisation and the widening productivity gap between 'the best and the rest' have negative implications for the labour share. We also find that most of the changes are due to reallocation within sectors providing support for the 'superstar firms' hypothesis. The finding that globalisation has had a negative impact on the labour share is of relevance for policy in the context of the current backlash against globalisation and reinforces the need to ensure benefits of globalisation and productivity are passed on to workers.
  • 20-May-2021

    English

    Reducing the precarity of academic research careers

    This report analyses academic research careers, with a focus on the 'research precariat', defined as postdoctoral researchers holding fixed-term positions without permanent or continuous employment prospects. It identifies policies and practices that aim to improve researchers’ well-being, develop more diverse, equitable and inclusive research systems, attract and retain the best talent in academia, and ultimately improve the quality of science. The report presents a conceptual framework and synthesis of available data and policy information. It draws on a survey of OECD countries that included country notes and interviews with policy officials, funders, representatives of research performing organisations and researchers. It offers recommendations and a set of policy options to improve working conditions and professional development, better link funding to human resource policies, make governance more inclusive, promote equal opportunities and diversity, improve human resource management, promote inter-sectoral and international mobility, and develop the evidence base on research careers.
  • 20-May-2021

    English

    Quantitative indicators for high-risk/high-reward research

    This paper describes the key characteristics of high-risk/high-reward research (HRHR), which has gained considerable interest from policy makers as a way to promote the development of new, ‘out-of-the-box’ ideas. It identifies three dimensions that are accentuated in HRHR research: higher levels of basicness, generality and novelty. These knowledge characteristics are commonly associated with market failure and research that requires public investment because it has large spill-overs, long time horizons and high levels of uncertainty. This is illustrated with examples of specific discoveries embedding each knowledge characteristic and the application of appropriate quantitative measures. The paper concludes with the computation and demonstration of an indicator of novelty that may be particularly well suited for the monitoring and evaluation of HRHR research policies.
  • 19-May-2021

    English

    Neurotechnology in and for society: Deliberation, stewardship and trust

    This workshop on 19-20 May 2021 focused on enabling societal deliberation on neurotechnology and promoting cultures of stewardship and trust in neurotechnology across the public and private sector in the context of the OECD Recommendation on Responsible Innovation in Nanotechnology.

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  • 18-May-2021

    English

    Effective policies to foster high-risk/high-reward research

    This report analyses policies and research funding mechanisms designed to foster high-risk high-reward (HRHR) research, and explores promising practices for fostering HRHR research in a variety of contexts. The underlying concern is that failure to encourage and support research on risky, ‘out-of-the-box’ ideas may jeopardise a country’s longer-term ability to compete economically, harness science for solving national and global challenges, and contribute to the progress of science as a whole. The analysis in this paper is primarily based on a survey of individual HRHR research funding schemes in different countries, complemented by targeted interviews. This survey was supplemented by an analysis of HRHR research-oriented programmes and by the feedback from an international workshop that included all relevant stakeholders.
  • 11-May-2021

    English

    Research Infrastructures mobilisation in response to COVID-19: lessons learned

    This virtual workshop held on 11 May 2021 provided an opportunity to discuss some of the critical questions that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic for different research infrastructure stakeholders.

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