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Publications & Documents


  • 31-January-2023

    English

    Risks of Illicit Trade in Counterfeits to Small and Medium-Sized Firms

    Illicit trade in counterfeit goods causes economic damage by reducing sales and profits as well as innovation incentives in legitimate industries. This study looks at damages caused by illicit trade in counterfeits to small and medium-sized enterprises. The robust evidence on the magnitude, scope and trends of this risk informs policy makers about the need to include anti-counterfeiting elements in policy packages designed to support SMEs.
  • 17-January-2023

    English

    The Public Governance of Anticipatory Innovation Ecosystems in Latvia - Exploring Applications in Key Sectors

    This report presents a case study of applying the OECD anticipatory innovation governance framework to develop and manage anticipatory innovation ecosystems as vehicles for knowledge generation, innovation governance and co-ordinated action to achieve policy goals. Part I establishes the case for anticipatory innovation ecosystems and sets out how they can be governed through a multi-level approach. In Part II, opportunities and challenges for applying this approach in the Latvian context are identified, and recommendations are made for developing anticipatory innovation ecosystems in Latvia.
  • 19-December-2022

    English

    Identifying and characterising AI adopters - A novel approach based on big data

    This work employs a novel approach to identify and characterise firms adopting Artificial Intelligence (AI), using different sources of large microdata. Focusing on the United Kingdom, the analysis combines data on Intellectual Property Rights, website information, online job postings, and firm-level financials for the first time. It shows that a significant share of AI adopters is active in Information and Communication Technologies and professional services, and is located in the South of the United Kingdom, particularly around London. Adopters tend to be highly productive and larger than other firms, while young adopters tend to hire AI workers more intensively. Human capital appears to play an important role, not only for AI adoption but also for firms’ productivity returns. Significant differences in the characteristics of AI adopters emerge when distinguishing between firms carrying out AI innovation, those with an AI core business, and those searching for AI talent.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Data in an evolving technological landscape - The case of connected and automated vehicles

    Digital technologies underpin the creation, generation, collection, transfer and use of data, and digital technological development and deployment shape data governance policy debates. This report analyses how technological development can raise different issues for data governance through the example of connected and automated vehicles, which collect large volumes of data that are likely to be personal. Through the example of these vehicles, this report explores data governance in an evolving technological landscape, and offers recommendations to ensure policies remain resilient to technological change over time.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Going Digital to Advance Data Governance for Growth and Well-being

    Data are generated wherever digital technologies are deployed namely, in almost every part of modern life. Using these data can empower individuals, drive innovation, enable new digital products and improve policy making and public service delivery. But as data become more widely used across sectors and applications, the potential for misuse and harm also grows. To advance data governance for growth and well-being, this report advocates a holistic and coherent approach to data governance, domestically and across borders. It examines how data have emerged as a strategic asset, with the ability to transform lives and confer economic advantage. It explains how the unique characteristics of data can pose complex trade-offs and challenge policies that pre-date the data-driven era. This report provides new insights, evidence and analysis and outlines considerations for better data governance policies in the digital age.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making

    The ubiquitous collection, use, and sharing of data that power today’s economies challenge existing governance frameworks and policy approaches. Drawing on the extensive research and analysis conducted at the OECD on data governance, on countries’ policies and practices, and the OECD legal instruments in this area, the Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making supports policy makers in navigating three fundamental policy tensions that characterise efforts to develop, revise, and implement policies for data governance across policy domains in the digital age: balancing data openness and control while maximising trust; managing overlapping and potentially conflicting interests and regulations related to data; incentivising investments in data and their effective re-use. The operative part of the guide consists of a checklist of questions to orient policy makers as they develop and revise effective policies for data governance, based on possible policy approaches and real-life examples.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Measuring the value of data and data flows

    Data have become a key input into the production of many goods and services. But just how important? What is the value of data – their contribution to economic growth and well-being? This report discusses different approaches to data valuation, their advantages and shortcomings and their applicability in different contexts. It argues that the value of data depends to a large extent on the data governance framework determining how they can be created, shared and used. In addition, the report provides estimates of the value of data and data flows. Its focus is on the monetary valuation of data produced by private economic actors and their recording in economic statistics. Finally, the report puts forward a draft measurement agenda for the future.
  • 9-December-2022

    English

    Strengthening FDI and SME Linkages in the Slovak Republic

    This report assesses the linkages between foreign direct investment (FDI) and domestic small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Slovak Republic. It provides policy recommendations to national and subnational governments on how to foster productivity and innovation spillovers from FDI to the local economy. The report looks at the quality of investment the country attracts, the absorptive capacity of Slovak SMEs, and a broad range of economic, business and policy conditions that can strengthen knowledge and technology diffusion from FDI to domestic SMEs. It also provides a diagnostic assessment of the core FDI-SME spillover diffusion channels, namely value chain linkages, strategic partnerships, labour mobility, and competition and imitation effects. The report provides an overview of the Slovak policy arrangements for promoting international investment, SME performance and innovation, and regional development. It does so by taking a close look at multi-level coordination, stakeholder consultation and impact evaluation. It then reviews the policy mix in support FDI-SME linkages and spillovers and proposes concrete areas for further policy reforms. The last chapter introduces a regional lens, focusing on the regions of Banská Bystrica and Košice. This report is part of a multi-year European Commission-OECD project on strengthening FDI-SME ecosystems and is the second pilot review for future country assessments.
  • 7-December-2022

    English

    Quantifying industrial strategies (QuIS) - Measuring industrial policy expenditures

    Industrial policy is sparking renewed interest across OECD member countries and partner economies. However, amidst an increasing number of objectives for industrial policy, and despite the availability of information on countries’ strategies and plans, it remains difficult to properly measure and compare resources spent on industrial policies and identify countries’ strategic priorities. The lack of a cross-country comparable source of information on resources dedicated to industrial policy partly results from the absence of a common methodology to account for industrial policy expenditures. This paper provides a new methodology for reporting industrial policy expenditure in a comparable way across countries. It is the first deliverable of the 'Quantifying Industrial Strategies' project, which aims at measuring industrial policy expenditures across OECD countries and will gather harmonised data on industrial policy expenditures, their composition, and their mode of delivery.
  • 17-November-2022

    English

    Opportunities for Hydrogen Production with CCUS in China

    Hydrogen and carbon capture, utilisation, and storage (CCUS) are set to play important and complementary roles in meeting People’s Republic of China’s (hereafter, 'China') pledge to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. Hydrogen could contribute to China’s energy system decarbonisation strategy, such as through the use as a fuel and feedstock in industrial processes; in fuel cell electric transport, and for the production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels for shipping and aviation. The analysis of scenarios in this report suggests that while hydrogen from renewable power electrolysis could meet the majority of hydrogen demand by 2060, equipping existing hydrogen production facilities with CCUS could be a complementary strategy to reduce emissions and scale-up low-emission hydrogen supply. This report was produced in collaboration with the Administrative Centre for China’s Agenda 21 (ACCA21). It explores today’s hydrogen and CCUS status in China, and the potential evolution of hydrogen demand in various sectors of the Chinese economy through 2060, in light of scenarios developed independently by the IEA and the China Hydrogen Alliance. The report also provides a comparative assessment of the economic performance and life cycle emissions of different hydrogen production routes. Finally, the report discusses potential synergies and regional opportunities in deploying CCUS and hydrogen, and identifies financing mechanisms and supporting policies required to enable the deployment of hydrogen production with CCUS in China.
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