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Publications & Documents


  • 17-November-2022

    English

    Opportunities for Hydrogen Production with CCUS in China

    Hydrogen and carbon capture, utilisation, and storage (CCUS) are set to play important and complementary roles in meeting People’s Republic of China’s (hereafter, 'China') pledge to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. Hydrogen could contribute to China’s energy system decarbonisation strategy, such as through the use as a fuel and feedstock in industrial processes; in fuel cell electric transport, and for the production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels for shipping and aviation. The analysis of scenarios in this report suggests that while hydrogen from renewable power electrolysis could meet the majority of hydrogen demand by 2060, equipping existing hydrogen production facilities with CCUS could be a complementary strategy to reduce emissions and scale-up low-emission hydrogen supply. This report was produced in collaboration with the Administrative Centre for China’s Agenda 21 (ACCA21). It explores today’s hydrogen and CCUS status in China, and the potential evolution of hydrogen demand in various sectors of the Chinese economy through 2060, in light of scenarios developed independently by the IEA and the China Hydrogen Alliance. The report also provides a comparative assessment of the economic performance and life cycle emissions of different hydrogen production routes. Finally, the report discusses potential synergies and regional opportunities in deploying CCUS and hydrogen, and identifies financing mechanisms and supporting policies required to enable the deployment of hydrogen production with CCUS in China.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Measuring the environmental impacts of artificial intelligence compute and applications - The AI footprint

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems can use massive computational resources, raising sustainability concerns. This report aims to improve understanding of the environmental impacts of AI, and help measure and decrease AI’s negative effects while enabling it to accelerate action for the good of the planet. It distinguishes between the direct environmental impacts of developing, using and disposing of AI systems and related equipment, and the indirect costs and benefits of using AI applications. It recommends the establishment of measurement standards, expanding data collection, identifying AI-specific impacts, looking beyond operational energy use and emissions, and improving transparency and equity to help policy makers make AI part of the solution to sustainability challenges.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Harnessing the power of AI and emerging technologies - Background paper for the CDEP Ministerial meeting

    AI and emerging technologies offer tremendous opportunities for well-being, productivity, growth and solving pressing societal challenges. However, they also pose risks to human rights, fairness and human agency, among others. Many countries recognise the need to develop forward-looking policies and adapt governance frameworks to keep pace with these developments and to leverage technological benefits while mitigating risks. This paper builds on the OECD’s extensive work on AI, data governance and connectivity to support policy makers in this process. It highlights the importance of co-operating internationally to ensure that emerging technologies are trustworthy and calls for building a common understanding of AI and emerging technologies, sharing good practices and creating the evidence base to inform policy design, implementation and evaluation.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Putting people first in digital transformation - Background paper for the CDEP Ministerial meeting

    Digital transformation affects every aspect of our lives, providing new spaces and tools for us to connect, work, consume, and enjoy our rights. It offers a multitude of social and economic opportunities, but also brings new and complex risks. An empowering and safe digital environment that puts people first is therefore a core policy goal of the digital age. Through the lens of a fictional family navigating these opportunities and risks, this paper looks at how digital transformation impacts us as individuals, be it as citizens, consumers, or workers. It outlines the policy landscape, and describes the international, multi-stakeholder, and nuanced efforts needed to strike a balance between different rights, interests, and values. A background paper for the 2022 Digital Economy Ministerial meeting, this paper supports senior policy makers in designing and achieving a human-centric digital transformation.
  • 4-November-2022

    English

    Building back a better innovation ecosystem in Ukraine

    Russia’s large-scale aggression is aggravating the long-term trend of underinvestment in R&D in Ukraine through direct war-related destruction of physical infrastructure and human capital, as well as accelerated brain drain. About a quarter of the research workforce had left the country as of August 2022.

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  • 25-October-2022

    English

    Transparency reporting on terrorist and violent extremist content online 2022

    This is the third benchmarking report tracking the evolution of online content-sharing services’ policies and procedures for terrorist and violent extremist content (TVEC). Fifteen of the top 50 most popular services now issue TVEC-specific transparency reports, increasing from five in 2020 and eleven in 2021. This edition also examines the 50 services that disseminate the most TVEC ('Intensive Services'). Only eleven services appear in both groups, reflecting that bad actors are shifting to smaller services as the larger ones strengthen TVEC moderation. Only eight Intensive Services currently issue TVEC-specific transparency reports, thirteen have no prohibition on TVEC and seventeen provide no information at all. The findings also suggest that services size and encryption are not insurmountable barriers to transparency reporting. It remains difficult to obtain an industry-wide perspective on the impact of companies’ measures against TVEC. Finally, regulatory fragmentation is worsening as more jurisdictions are implementing disparate transparency requirements. Previous benchmarking reports: 'Transparency reporting on terrorist and violent extremist content online: An update on the global top 50 content sharing' (2021); 'Current approaches to terrorist and violent extremist content among the global top 50 online content-sharing services' (2020).
  • 7-October-2022

    English

    Financing Growth and Turning Data into Business - Helping SMEs Scale Up

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that scale up have long raised policy interest for their extraordinary potential in terms of job creation, innovation, competitiveness and economic growth. Yet, little is known about which firms could effectively become scalers, and what policies could effectively promote SME growth. This report is part of a series aiming to help policy makers unleash scalers’ potential. Building on new evidence from microdata work, it rethinks the nature and scope of scale up policies, suggesting the need for a broader and more cross cutting approach. The report then explores two thematic areas that are relevant for SME scaling up, i.e. SME data governance and their access to ‘scale up’ finance. Based on an international mapping of 369 institutions and 1174 policy initiatives across OECD countries, the analysis shows that SME and entrepreneurship policy is not among the core mandates of many implementing institutions, calling for sound coordination across the board and further mainstreaming of SME growth considerations in both policy areas. Moreover, national policy mixes vary significantly across countries, reflecting different approaches to promoting SME growth and to SME targeting, but also revealing possible policy blind spots.
  • 5-October-2022

    English

    Good practice principles for ethical behavioural science in public policy

    For the past decade, behavioural science has been influencing public policy by applying principles of psychology, cognitive and social sciences, neuroscience and economics, to put individuals at the forefront of policy goals, and with an accurate rather than imagined understanding of human behaviour. Like any policy-making tool, the use of behavioural insights must be subject to ethical considerations that can arise at any point from scoping to policy scaling. This good practice guide offers practitioners and policy makers step-by-step guidance to prompt deliberations into how to use behavioural science ethically for public policy. It is designed to be a practical resource to promote the responsible use of behavioural science in the public sector.
  • 4-October-2022

    English

    Current crises underline the need for Germany to overhaul innovation policy to ensure its industries remain competitive, says OECD

    Germany needs to adopt a more agile, risk-tolerant and experimental approach to innovation policy if it is to continue to lead in its historical core industries such as automotive manufacturing, machinery, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and be a champion of the industries of tomorrow, according to a new OECD report.

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  • 4-October-2022

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Germany 2022 - Building Agility for Successful Transitions

    The COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine war have revealed vulnerabilities in Germany’s economic model: undiversified energy supply, an over-reliance on fossil fuels, delayed digitalisation and disruptable supply chains. Digital technologies may significantly disrupt manufacturing industries Germany has dominated for decades, threatening future competitiveness. The green transition also requires significant industrial transformations. Germany can call upon one of the world’s most advanced innovation systems in dealing with these challenges, but a new more agile and experimental approach to STI policy is needed. This Review outlines how to develop such an approach and what STI policies need to focus on: create markets for future innovations, more significant and more risk-tolerant finance for innovation, inter-disciplinary knowledge exchange, improved data infrastructure and capabilities. Given the internationally shared challenges of dealing with transitions, the insights presented in the review will be of interest to policymakers, stakeholders and analysts from Germany and across the OECD.
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