Publications & Documents

  • 5-July-2023


    Very Large Research Infrastructures - Policy issues and options

    Very Large Research Infrastructures (VLRIs) are unique, complex undertakings with a strong international dimension that play a critical role in frontier research in most scientific domains. VLRIs require considerable care in their construction and operation, as well as very substantial investments and technological innovations. Recent evolutions in the political, socio-economic and scientific context are challenging their established planning and management models. This policy report identifies and analyses good practices and presents a series of lessons learned regarding the establishment of VLRIs, options for improving their use and operation, as well as more strategic considerations that VLRI managers, funders and decision-makers should take into consideration.
  • 3-July-2023


    COVID-19 and policy for science

    This is the first in a series of three reports that explore how science was mobilised in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The focus is on policy for science – access to data and information, the role of infrastructures and the interface between academia and industry. The report includes recommendations and options for policy action to improve the resilience of national science systems and their capacity to co-operate internationally in response to crises. The context in each country is different, as illustrated by the many case studies included in the report, and so the priority attached to these recommendations and the specific details of how they might be implemented will vary. They are provided as an overall framework for science policymakers and other actors, including research funders and research providers, to consider.
  • 27-June-2023


    Did COVID-19 accelerate the green transition? - An international assessment of fiscal spending measures to support low-carbon technologies

    Fiscal spending policies adopted in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic have been presented as a unique opportunity to 'build back better' and re-ignite the economy while accelerating the transition to a low-carbon economy. This paper analyses 1 166 funding measures announced by 51 countries and the European Union in 2020-21 to support development and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. These measures – amounting to USD 1.29 trillion – can make an important contribution to filling the climate investment gap, particularly in emerging technologies such as carbon capture, usage and storage and green hydrogen. A modelling analysis suggests that they could have large impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and bring about significant co-benefits in terms of clean sectors’ output growth and reductions in fossil fuel imports.
  • 19-June-2023


    Engaging citizens in innovation policy - Why, when and how?

    Innovation policies need to be socially embedded for them to effectively contribute to addressing major societal challenges. Engaging citizens in innovation policymaking can help define long-term policy priorities, enhance the quality and legitimacy of policy decisions, and increase the visibility of innovation in society. However, engaging all groups in society and effectively integrating citizens' inputs in policy processes is challenging. This paper discusses why, when and how to engage citizens in innovation policy making. It also addresses practical considerations for organising these processes, such as reaching out to diverse publics and selecting the optimal mix of methods and tools.
  • 13-June-2023


    The contribution of R&D specialist institutions to R&D performance - Findings from the NESTI 2022 pilot data collection

    Long-standing policy interest in the role of organisations specialised in research and experimental development (R&D) raises questions about how these organisations are classified under different institutional sectors and contribute to R&D statistics This paper reports on the findings of the pilot data collection conducted in 2022. The results show a diverse range of R&D specialist ecosystems as well as major reporting gaps. The ultimate aim of this exercise and its recommendations is to demonstrate how several OECD countries are able to provide meaningful statistical results using OECD guidance and promote the mainstreaming of reporting into future national and OECD R&D statistics.
  • 15-May-2023


    Digital Government Review of Türkiye - Towards a Digitally-Enabled Government

    This Digital Government Review of Türkiye explores how the Government of Türkiye can use digital technology and data to help the public sector become more responsive, resilient and proactive. It evaluates the efforts made so far by Türkiye in achieving digital government maturity by looking at governance, institutional capacities, digital skills, public service design and delivery, enabling building blocks and the strategic management and use of data. The review provides policy recommendations intended to help the Government of Türkiye fully benefit from digital technologies and data to realise the potential of the digital age in transforming the public sector and the services provided to the public.
  • 28-April-2023


    Innovating Assessments to Measure and Support Complex Skills

    Policy makers around the world recognise the importance of developing young people’s 21st century skills like problem solving, creative thinking, self-regulation and collaboration. Many countries also include these skills as part of the intended learning outcomes of their education systems. To shift intention into practice, educational assessments need to better measure what matters. Innovative assessments are needed that combine conceptual, technological and methodological advances in educational measurement. This report explores new approaches to measuring complex skills through a practical and applied assessment design lens, bringing together perspectives from leading experts to consider what we can learn from the learning sciences to define more authentic assessment experiences and expand the range of skills we are able to measure in both disciplinary and cross-disciplinary contexts of practice. The report also examines how technology can expand our possibilities for innovation, including the creation of more interactive and immersive problems and the generation of meaningful sources of potential evidence about students’ proficiency. Finally, the report explores how we can make sense of the rich data captured in interactive digital environments using new analytical approaches, and how we can ensure the valid interpretation and use of results from innovative assessments.
  • 27-April-2023


    Moving forward on data free flow with trust - New evidence and analysis of business experiences

    This report uses business consultations to investigate private-sector views on privacy and data protection rules for cross-border data flows. It aims to inform a more comprehensive understanding of challenges and ways forward for the policy agenda of ‘data free flow with trust’. While frameworks aimed at generating trust and facilitating data flows build on commonalities and elements of convergence, businesses identify challenges to fully operationalise them at the global level. In particular, businesses indicate the need for coherent principles and rules that are transparent and predictable, provide a practical balance between certainty and flexibility, and offer solutions that match business realities. Finally, the report highlights the need for greater international regulatory co-operation and leveraging the full range of options to uphold trust around privacy and data protection globally.
  • 26-April-2023


    Technology assessment for emerging technology - Meeting new demands for strategic intelligence

    The rapid pace of technological change, coupled with a pressing need for solutions to address grand societal challenges and global crises, heightens the challenge for policy makers to develop science, technology and innovation policies at speed, in situations of high uncertainty and, in some cases, around potentially controversial technology fields. Technology assessment (TA) has a long history of providing decision-makers with timely strategic intelligence on emerging technologies. Current demands are pushing TA to evolve in order to fulfil diverse functions: to illuminate the societal, economic, environmental and other consequences of new technologies; to inform public opinion; and to guide research and development. Drawing on nine case studies, this report analyses the response of TA practices to these changing drivers and demands to support policies for new and emerging technologies. It also identifies a set of principles to guide good contemporary TA practice.
  • 21-April-2023


    ANBERD (Analytical Business Enterprise Research and Development) database

    Data set on R&D expenditure by industry which addresses the problems of international comparability and breaks in the time series of the official business enterprise R&D data.

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