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Publications & Documents


  • 8-November-2021

    English

    Transport Strategies for Net-Zero Systems by Design

    Efforts that primarily focus on incremental change in systems that are unsustainable by design are one of the main barriers to scaling up climate action. This report applies the OECD well-being lens process to the transport sector. It builds on the report Accelerating Climate Action and encourages countries to focus climate action on delivering systems that - by design - improve well-being while requiring less energy and materials, and thus producing less emissions. The report identifies three dynamics at the source of car dependency and high emissions: induced demand, urban sprawl and the erosion of active and shared transport modes. The report also provides policy recommendations to reverse such dynamics and reduce emissions while improving well-being, from radical street redesign, to spatial planning aimed at increasing proximity, and policies to mainstream shared mobility. Analysis also shows why the effectiveness and public acceptability of carbon pricing and policies incentivising vehicle electrification can significantly increase after policy reprioritisation towards systems redesign.
  • 8-November-2021

    English

    Stratégies pour concevoir des systèmes de transport intrinsèquement neutres en carbone - Résumé exécutif

    L’un des principaux obstacles à une action climatique plus ambitieuse est que les initiatives visent essentiellement à apporter des modifications mineures à des systèmes qui sont fondamentalement non durables. Le rapport précité applique l’approche de l’OCDE axée sur le bien-être au secteur des transports. Il s’appuie sur le rapport « Accélérer l’action pour le climat » et encourage les pays à centrer leur action en faveur du climat sur la mise en place de systèmes qui – par nature – améliorent le bien-être tout en nécessitant moins d’énergie et de matières, et donc produisent moins d’émissions. Le rapport met en évidence trois phénomènes à l’origine de la dépendance à la voiture et du niveau élevé des émissions : le trafic induit, l’étalement urbain ainsi que l’érosion des solutions de mobilité active et partagée. Il formule en outre des recommandations à l’intention des pouvoirs publics pour mettre fin à cette dynamique et réduire les émissions tout en améliorant le bien-être : la réorganisation radicale des rues, l’aménagement de l’espace axé sur la création de proximité, ou des mesures visant à généraliser la mobilité partagée. L’analyse montre également pourquoi l’efficacité et l’acceptabilité par la société de la tarification du carbone ainsi que les politiques incitant à l’électrification des voitures peuvent sensiblement se développer une fois que les pouvoirs publics accordent la priorité à la refonte des systèmes.
  • 2-November-2021

    English

    Key nanotechnology indicators

    Indicators include nanotech firms, nanotech R&D, public sector R&D expenditure and nanotechnology patents.

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  • 2-November-2021

    English

    Key biotechnology indicators

    Statistics on biotechnology firms, biotechnology R&D (including public sector expenditures), biotech applications and patents.

  • 29-October-2021

    English

    OECD workshop on AI and the productivity of science

    Is there a slowdown in the productivity of science? And if so, why? This interactive virtual workshop to be held from 29 October to 5 November will bring together experts from the artificial intelligence community to advance the debate on what governments can do to maximise the positive impacts of AI on science today and in the decades to come.

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  • 18-October-2021

    English

    Productivity-wage nexus at the firm-level in Portugal - Decoupling and divergences

    There is a growing international concern about the slowdown in productivity growth, especially as labor productivity enhancements are important drivers of higher generalised living standards. Using administrative data of firms in Portugal between 2010 and 2016, we analyse the relationships between productivity and wages. At odds with neoclassical theory of marginal productivity of labor, we find that two thirds of firms insufficiently raised wages given observed productivity growth. Employing unconditional quantile regressions, we investigate some quantifiable determinants of the productivity-wage gap at different parts of the distributions. Most of the documented dynamics contributed not only to the divergence of productivity and wages but also to the decoupling of productivity and wage growth. We argue that labor market flexibilisation intensified segmentation, providing incentives for non standard contracts. Both dimensions, as well as higher board compensations, international trade and on-the-job training weakened the link between productivity and wages.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Policies for a Carbon-Neutral Industry in the Netherlands

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the policy instruments adopted by the Netherlands to reach carbon neutrality in its manufacturing sector by 2050. The analysis illustrates the strength of combining a strong commitment to raising carbon prices with ambitious technology support, uncovers the pervasiveness of competitiveness provisions, and highlights the trade-off between short-term emissions cuts and longer-term technology shift. The Netherlands’ carbon levy sets an ambitious price trajectory to 2030, but is tempered by extensive preferential treatment to energy-intensive users, yielding a highly unequal carbon price across firms and sectors. The country’s technology support focuses on the cost-effective deployment of low-carbon options, which ensures least-cost decarbonisation in the short run but favours relatively mature technologies. The report offers recommendations for policy adjustments to reach the country’s carbon neutrality objective, including the gradual removal of exemptions, enhanced support for emerging technologies and greater visibility over future infrastructure plans.
  • 6-October-2021

    English

    Data governance: Enhancing access to and sharing of data

    The OECD Recommendation on Enhancing Access to and Sharing of Data is the first internationally agreed upon set of principles and policy guidance on how governments can maximise the cross-sectoral benefits of all types of data – personal, non-personal, open, proprietary, public and private – while protecting the rights of individuals and organisations.

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  • 4-October-2021

    English

    Putting the OECD AI Principles into practice: Progress and future perspectives

    Watch the recording of this high-level discussion about progress in implementing the OECD Principles on Artificial Intelligence that took place 4 October as part of the OECD Ministerial Council meeting.

  • 25-September-2021

    English

    Data-Driven, Information-Enabled Regulatory Delivery

    Industries and businesses are becoming increasingly digital, and the COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated this trend. Regulators around the world are also experimenting with data-driven tools to apply and enforce rules in a more agile and targeted way. This report maps out several efforts undertaken jointly by the OECD and Italian regulators to develop and use artificial intelligence and machine learning tools in regulatory inspections and enforcement. It provides unique insights into the background processes and structures required for digital tools to perform predictive modelling, risk analysis and classification. It also highlights the challenges such tools bring, both in specific regulatory areas and to the broader goals of regulatory systems.
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