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  • 26-June-2024

    English

    Western Balkans Competitiveness Outlook 2024: Regional Profile

    Inclusive and sustainable economic growth in the six Western Balkan (WB6) economies depends on greater economic competitiveness. Although the gap is closing gradually, the standards of living in WB6 are well below those of the OECD and EU. Accelerating the rate of socio-economic convergence will require a holistic and growth oriented approach to policy making. This is the fourth study of the region (formerly under the title 'Competitiveness in South East Europe') and it comprehensively assesses policy reforms in the WB6 economies across 15 policy areas key to strengthening their competitiveness. It enables WB6 economies to compare economic performance against regional peers, as well as EU-OECD good practices and standards, and to design future policies based on rich evidence and actionable policy recommendations. The regional profile presents assessment findings across five policy clusters crucial to accelerating socio-economic convergence of the WB6 by fostering regional co-operation: business environment, skills, infrastructure and connectivity, digital transformation and greening. Economy-specific profiles complement the regional assessment, offering each WB6 economy an in-depth analysis of their policies supporting competitiveness. They also track the implementation of the previous 2021 study's recommendations and provide additional ones tailored to the economies’ evolving challenges. These recommendations aim to inform structural economic reforms and facilitate the region’s socio-economic convergence towards the standards of the EU and OECD.
  • 14-June-2024

    English

    Taming wildfires in the context of climate change: The case of Greece

    The frequency and severity of extreme wildfires are on the rise in Greece, causing unprecedented disruption and increasingly challenging the country’s capacity to contain losses and damages. These challenges are set to keep growing in the context of climate change, highlighting the need to scale up wildfire prevention and climate change adaptation. This paper provides an overview of Greece's wildfire policies and practices and assesses the extent to which wildfire management in the country is evolving to adapt to growing wildfire risk under climate change.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    Greenhouse gas emissions data - Concepts and data availability

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data is essential for tracking progress towards the Paris Agreement’s global temperature goals. In addition to the emissions inventories based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines, which are used for tracking progress under the framework of the Paris Agreement, there are other GHG emissions datasets that cater to different users and policy objectives. This paper evaluates three OECD datasets on GHG emissions: Air emissions – Greenhouse gas emissions inventories, Agricultural greenhouse gases emissions, and the Air Emissions Accounts (AEAs) based on the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting. It also looks at one dataset from the International Energy Agency: CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. It discusses the inventory and AEA approaches in terms of accounting principles (production- versus demand-based, territory versus residence), as well as classifications and scope of emissions. It looks at the coverage of the GHG emissions datasets and identifies the data gaps. Finally, the paper outlines several steps to enhance data coverage and quality of the datasets.
  • 10-June-2024

    English

    Clean Energy Finance and Investment Roadmap of Thailand

    Thailand has adopted ambitious clean energy targets to meet its long-term climate goals, committing to reach carbon neutrality by 2050 and net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2065. Transforming Thailand’s energy system, alongside broader development objectives, is critical to meeting these goals as the energy sector accounts for 69% of Thailand’s total GHG emissions. The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Roadmap of Thailand ('the Roadmap') outlines key actions to unlock finance and investment in two clean energy sectors: (i) renewable power, with special attention to small-scale renewable power systems; and (ii) energy efficiency in buildings, with a focus on cooling applications. The two sectors were selected in close consultation with the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) of the Ministry of Energy of Thailand. The Roadmap provides a comprehensive overview of the progress to date, policy context and challenges to mobilise near-term finance in those sectors, as well as estimates of the finance needs to reach Thailand’s clean energy plans. The report also includes a roadmap action plan, suggesting non-prescriptive recommendations and actions that the Government of Thailand, financial institutions, energy service companies, academia and the international development community active in the country could undertake to foster clean energy investments in Thailand.
  • 6-June-2024

    English

    Data platform on development finance for the sustainable ocean economy

    How much official development assistance do developing countries receive to foster sustainable ocean economies?

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  • 29-May-2024

    English

    Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2013-2022

    The report outlines the aggregate trends in annual climate finance provided and mobilised by developed countries for climate action in developing countries over the period 2013-2022. It presents these trends by source of finance, climate theme, sector, income group and type of financial instrument. Additionally, the report explores adaptation finance trends in relation to the Glasgow Pact's call for developed countries to double adaptation finance by 2025 and offers insights into the growing significance of multilateral providers in the climate finance landscape.
  • 29-May-2024

    English

    Developed countries materially surpassed their USD 100 billion climate finance commitment in 2022 - OECD

    Developed countries provided and mobilised USD 115.9 billion in climate finance for developing countries in 2022, exceeding the annual 100 billion goal for the first time and reaching a level that had not been expected before 2025.

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  • 29-May-2024

    English

    Assessing the enabling conditions for investment in Armenia's water security - Scorecard pilot test

    This paper is part of a subset of working papers within the Environment Working Paper series, presenting research on the enabling environment for investment in water security. The subset includes country and regional projects aimed at pilot testing the Scorecard, designed to assess the enabling environment for investment in water security. The paper 'Assessing the Enabling Conditions for Investment in Water Security: Scorecard Pilot Test in Asian Countries' delineates the findings from the initial phase. This paper marks the commencement of the second round of pilot tests in the EU’s Eastern Partnership Countries. It presents the results obtained from assessing the enabling environment for investment in water security in Armenia, using the Scorecard. It also presents policy recommendations based on the priority investment barriers identified during stakeholder consultations in the country, involving representatives from various Ministries engaged in water security and international donors. The assessment and recommendations cover the public investment framework and its impact on water-related sectors, the water investment framework, project bankability and sustainability, as well as the contribution of other economic sectors to water security.
  • 28-May-2024

    English

    Development Finance for Climate and Environment

    The OECD DAC measures and monitors development finance targeting climate change objectives using two Rio markers: Climate Change Mitigation and Climate Change Adaptation.

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  • 28-May-2024

    English

    Environmental Justice - Context, Challenges and National Approaches

    There is mounting evidence that, depending on social and economic circumstances, some communities and groups may face disproportionate exposure to environmental hazards, bear an inequitable share of the costs associated with environmental policies or face more barriers to participating in environmental decision-making. As countries increase their efforts to tackle environmental degradation, pollution and climate change, the concept of environmental justice can shed light on how to ensure fairness in the processes and outcomes of environmental policymaking. This report examines the plurality of the concept of environmental justice, its underlying conceptual pillars and how it has emerged in different contexts around the world. The report also provides the first policy stocktake of how governments across the OECD and beyond are seeking to redress environmental justice concerns, building upon insights from 26 responses to the OECD Environmental Justice Survey as well as complementary desk analysis across a broader set of countries.
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