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Publications & Documents


  • 1-November-2021

    English

    Managing Climate Risks, Facing up to Losses and Damages - Understanding, Reducing and Managing Risks

    This report addresses the urgent issue of climate-related losses and damages. Climate change is driving fundamental changes to the planet with adverse impacts on human livelihoods and well-being, putting development gains at risk. The scale and extent of future risks for a given location is, however, subject to uncertainties in predicting complex climate dynamics as well as the impact of individual and societal decisions that determine future greenhouse gas emissions as well as patterns of socio-economic development and inequality. This report approaches climate-related losses and damages from a risk management perspective. It explores how climate change will play out in different geographies, over time, focusing on the three types of hazards: slow-onset changes such as sea-level rise; extreme events including heatwaves, extreme rainfall and drought; and the potential for large-scale non-linear changes within the climate system itself. The report explores approaches to reduce and manage risks with a focus on policy action, finance and the role of technology in supporting effective risk governance processes. Drawing on experiences from around the world, least developed countries and small island developing states in particular, the report highlights a number of good practices and points to ways forward.
  • 28-October-2021

    English

    How’s Life in Latin America? - Measuring Well-being for Policy Making

    Many Latin American countries have experienced improvements in income over recent decades, with several of them now classified as high-income or upper middle-income in terms of conventional metrics. But has this change been mirrored in improvements across the different areas of people’s lives? How’s Life in Latin America? Measuring Well-being for Policy Making addresses this question by presenting comparative evidence for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) with a focus on 11 LAC countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay). Spanning material conditions, quality of life, resources for future well-being, and inequalities, the report presents available evidence on well-being both before and since the onset of the pandemic, based on the OECD Well-being Framework. It also identifies priorities for addressing well-being gaps and describes how well-being frameworks are used in policy within Latin America and elsewhere around the world, providing lessons for governments on what is needed to put people’s well-being at the centre of their action. The report is part of the EU Regional Facility for Development in Transition for Latin America and the Caribbean.
  • 20-October-2021

    English

    Preventing single-use plastic waste - Implications of different policy approaches

    Single-use plastics constitute approximately half of global plastic waste generation. Their use in consumer goods and packaging has been the focus of recent waste prevention policy due to the importance of the volumes of waste generated and the frequency with which these materials are littered. To address several externalities that emerge across the life-cycle of single-use plastics, multiple policies can be combined to constitute an effective policy mix. In several markets, market-based policy instruments and policy bans have helped to curb waste generation and littering of single-use plastics. However, the effectiveness of these interventions depends to an important extent on whether environmentally preferable substitute materials or products are available, and on whether the measures are effectively enforced. Effective policy intervention requires a policy mix that covers single-use plastics, as well as their substitutes, and that includes an emphasis on monitoring and enforcement, in order to help minimise burden-shifting of environmental impacts.
  • 20-October-2021

    English

    Policies to Reduce Microplastics Pollution in Water - Focus on Textiles and Tyres

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the natural environment. This report synthetises the current state of knowledge on the sources, fate and risks of microplastics pollution. It then focuses on two sources of microplastics pollution, textile products and vehicle tyres, due to their substantial contribution to global microplastics emissions and currently largely absent policy frameworks to mitigate them. Several best practices and technological solutions can be implemented along the lifecycle of textile products and vehicle tyres to mitigate releases to the environment. The report proposes policy insights on measures and strategies that could help minimise microplastics emitted unintentionally from products and their potential impacts on human health and ecosystems.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on inhibition of calcineurin activity leading to impaired T-cell dependent antibody response

    The present AOP describes the inhibition of calcineurin activity resulting in impaired T-Cell Dependent Antibody Response (TDAR). Calcineurin (CN), a protein phosphatase, is known to impair immune function when its phosphatase activation is inhibited. CN inhibitors (CNIs) inhibit CN phosphatase activity to suppress many kinds of immune functions and have been used in the medical domain to prevent hyper immune reactions. However, CNIs are reported to also induce immunosuppression-derived adverse effects such as increased frequency and/or severity of infections and increased tumor incidences. CNIs might affect several T-cell derived immune functions to induce compromised host. Among the affected immune functions, T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) is an important factor to resist infections and thought to be the useful endpoint on evaluating immunotoxicity of chemicals; therefore, this AOP describes the linkage between the inhibition of CN activity and impairment of TDAR.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Policies for a Carbon-Neutral Industry in the Netherlands

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the policy instruments adopted by the Netherlands to reach carbon neutrality in its manufacturing sector by 2050. The analysis illustrates the strength of combining a strong commitment to raising carbon prices with ambitious technology support, uncovers the pervasiveness of competitiveness provisions, and highlights the trade-off between short-term emissions cuts and longer-term technology shift. The Netherlands’ carbon levy sets an ambitious price trajectory to 2030, but is tempered by extensive preferential treatment to energy-intensive users, yielding a highly unequal carbon price across firms and sectors. The country’s technology support focuses on the cost-effective deployment of low-carbon options, which ensures least-cost decarbonisation in the short run but favours relatively mature technologies. The report offers recommendations for policy adjustments to reach the country’s carbon neutrality objective, including the gradual removal of exemptions, enhanced support for emerging technologies and greater visibility over future infrastructure plans.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on histone deacetylase inhibition leading to testicular atrophy

    The present AOP describes inhibition of histone deacetylase resulting in testicular atrophy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are approved as anti-cancer drugs since HDIs have apoptotic effects in cancer cells. The intracellular mechanisms of induction of the spermatocyte apoptosis by HDIs are suggested as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition as MIE, histone acetylation increase, disrupted cell cycle, apoptosis, and spermatocyte depletion as KEs. The adverse outcome has been defined as testicular atrophy. The HDIs inhibit deacetylation of the histone, leading to an increase in histone acetylation. The apoptosis induced by disrupted cell cycle leads to spermatocyte depletion and testis atrophy. Testicular toxicity is of interest for human health risk assessment especially in terms of reproductive and developmental toxicity, however, the testicular toxicity has not been fully elucidated. This AOP may be one of the pathways induced by HDIs, which suggests the pathway networks of protein hyperacetylations.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on Cyp2E1 activation leading to liver cancer

    The present AOP describes the prolonged activation of Cyp2E1 resulting in liver cancer. Cyp2E1 is a cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase that bioactivates over 85 substrates, thereby creating electrophilic metabolites and oxidative stress. Mono-oxygenation of these substrates to their reactive metabolites, and the accompanying oxidative stress produced during metabolism, pose health risks because they lead to hepatotoxicity and, often, to liver cancer. The MIE occurs when Cyp2E1 binds a substrate. The Cyp2E1 catalytic cycle is prone to decoupling, which produces oxidative stress (KE1), and mono-oxidation of substrates produces reactive metabolites. Both reactive oxygen species and metabolites cause cytotoxicity (KE2). However, following injury, the liver is able to regenerate itself through an increase in cellular proliferation (KE3). Under conditions of chronic activation of Cyp2E1, excessive chronic increases in levels of reactive oxygen species and cell death, and subsequent dysregulated cellular proliferation, leads to tumour formation (AO).
  • 14-October-2021

    English

    Behavioural and Experimental Economics for Environmental Policy

    This project investigates how behavioural economics can inform the design of “norm-based” environmental policies and “behaviourally robust” markets for ecosystem services. This work is part of a broader effort of a project that seeks to identify areas where behavioural economics can have the greatest impact on environmental policy design.

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  • 13-October-2021

    English

    Tax Policy and Climate Change: IMF/OECD Report for the G20

    This report focuses on carbon pricing, taking stock of current pricing patterns, identifying reform needs to meet mitigation pledges, impacts, and opportunities, and comprehensive approaches to address political economy concerns.

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