Science, technology and innovation policy

Annexes to the Frascati Manual for collecting and reporting data on research and experimental development


This page provides links to relevant online annexes to the OECD Frascati Manual for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development and supporting material for use by R&D statisticians and interested users of R&D data and indicators.

A number of annexes that were available in the Frascati Manual 2002 edition are still relevant under the 2015 edition; they are made available here for reference. Some of them are expected to be updated and will be joined in the future by additional, complementary guidance. Previous annexes that have been discontinued in the 2015 edition can be consulted in the previous editions of the Frascati Manual.

This page also provides links to international classifications used within the manual and its annexes.


Glossary of terms used in the Frascati Manual 2015

The first version of this glossary of terms is available in the print edition. It will be maintained and updated online. Click here for the most recent version of the glossary.



Frascati Manual R&D and the System of National Accounts

Published in 2017, this working paper looks at the Frascati Manual (FM) framework for R&D statistics and the System of National Accounts (SNA) framework of comprehensive economic accounts, giving an overview of their shared history and analysing similarities and differences in their approaches to measuring R&D following a fundamental change of the treatment of R&D in the 2008 SNA.

The paper also highlights the various actions taken in the 2015 FM revision which respond to National Accounts data needs and thereby aims to provide a common platform for collaboration and dialogue between FM and SNA practitioners. Finally, the FM and SNA R&D statistics are presented and their conceptual, data, and coverage underpinnings compared, helping to elucidate issues that need to be communicated to users so that they can better understand and interpret these related but different R&D statistics.

Annex on methods of deriving regional R&D data

The 2002 Frascati Manual included this annex providing recommendations for breaking down data on R&D personnel and R&D expenditure by region. It briefly outlines various methods of doing so, drawing on previous work by Eurostat. In the absence of a more up-to-date version, R&D practitioners may wish to refer to this guidance material in their work to regionalise national R&D statistics.


Annex on practical methods of providing up-to-date estimates and projections of resources devoted to R&D

The 2002 Frascati Manual described in this annex the most frequently used methods and basic guiding principles for forecasting and projecting the values of selected variables when survey results are not yet available. It deals with short-term projections and with attempts to estimate these variables for very recent years. In the absence of a more up-to-date version, R&D practitioners may wish to refer to this guidance material in their work to provide more timely R&D statistics. Please also note that the manual’s 7th edition contains some specific guidance on this topic relating to questions on R&D intentions and timely measures of Government Budget Allocations for R&D.


Annex on R&D deflators and currency converters

The 2002 Frascati Manual examined a range of methods for deflating and converting data on R&D expenditures expressed in national currencies at current prices to a numeraire currency in this annex.  Both these issues involve adjusting R&D expenditures for differences in price levels; over time (i.e. intertemporal differences) and among countries (i.e. interspatial differences). In the absence of a more up-to-date version, R&D practitioners may wish to refer to this guidance material in their work to report R&D statistics in constant price- or numeraire currency-terms.


Annex on R&D related to health, information and communication technology (ICT) and biotechnology

The 2002 Frascati Manual presented in this annex three areas of R&D for which it was not possible to derive information through direct use of the classifications recommended elsewhere in that edition. All three are of high policy relevance, and there is a clear need for data on R&D related to these fields. It is often necessary to combine R&D data from various classifications or even to develop new survey questions to meet those needs. With the qualification that biotechnology and nanotechnology currently feature in the OECD Fields of R&D classification, some of the material in this annex is still relevant. In the absence of a more up-to-date version, R&D practitioners may wish to refer to this guidance material in their work on R&D in these domains.


International classifications used in the Frascati Manual

The Frascati Manual refers to a number of international classifications. The most up-to-date links are available below: