Defining innovation


Innovation goes far beyond R&D

It goes far beyond the confines of research labs to users, suppliers and consumers everywhere – in government, business and non-profit organisations, across borders, across sectors, and across institutions






The Oslo Manual for measuring innovation defines four types of innovation: product innovation, process innovation, marketing innovation and organisational innovation.


Product innovation



A good or service that is new or significantly improved. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, software in the product, user friendliness or other functional characteristics.


Process innovation



A new or significantly improved production or delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software.


Marketing innovation



A new marketing method involving significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing.


Organisational innovation



A new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations.