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International Migration Outlook 2021

The 2021 edition of International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and the labour market inclusion of immigrants in OECD countries. It also monitors recent policy changes in migration governance and integration in OECD countries. This edition includes two special chapters, one providing an in-depth analysis of the fiscal impact of migration in OECD countries since the mid 2000s and another on the causes and consequences of the residential segregation of immigrants. The Outlook also includes country notes and a detailed statistical annex.

Published on October 28, 2021Also available in: French

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword
Editorial
Executive summary
Key facts and figures (infographic)
Recent developments in international migration movements and labour market inclusion of immigrants
Recent developments in immigration policy
Recent developments in migrant integration policy
The fiscal impact of immigration in OECD countries since the mid‑2000s
Residential segregation of immigrants: Patterns, drivers, effects and policy responses
Statistical annex
List of the members of the OECD Expert Group on Migration
Composition of OECD International Migration Division
Country notes: Recent changes in migration movements and policies41 chapters available
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Notes and data sources
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Key facts

USD 2.5 trillion

In 2017, migrants paid USD 2.5 trillion in taxes and contributions in surveyed OECD economies, USD 570 billion more than governments spent on them.

3.7 million people

Just 3.7 million permanent migrants arrived in OECD countries in 2020, a 33% drop from the previous year due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This is the lowest level of migration since 2003.

1 in 10 migrants

1 in 10 migrants were unemployed in 2020 compared to 1 in 15 native-born residents in OECD countries. Hospitality and domestic services, which have the highest concentration of migrant workers, were among the hardest hit by the pandemic.