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  • 24-January-2024

    English

    Sustainable Investment Policy Perspectives in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

    The Economic Community of Western African States (ECOWAS) offers a large and diverse market of over 400 million people and natural resource wealth, and yet it is not currently living up to its potential as a destination for international investment. Inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the region have been declining over time, and have not always delivered on promoting sustainable development. This report serves as a baseline diagnostic to explore ways to reinvigorate the reform of the ECOWAS investment climate while also improving sustainable outcomes from investment. It also highlights areas where further collaboration between ECOWAS and the OECD could contribute to improved investment climates throughout the region. Building upon the OECD Policy Framework for Investment and the FDI Qualities Policy Toolkit, the report covers the national regulatory framework encapsulated in national investment laws and how this compares with initiatives at a regional level, investment promotion and facilitation, investment incentives, investment for green growth and responsible business conduct.
  • 15-December-2023

    English

    Latin American Economic Outlook 2023 - Investing in Sustainable Development

    Latin America and the Caribbean needs an ambitious and comprehensive investment agenda to embark on a stronger and more sustainable development trajectory. The 16th edition of the Latin American Economic Outlook proposes ways to make this possible through co-ordinated actions by policy makers, the private sector and international partners. It argues that to close existing investment gaps and overcome the region’s structural challenges, it is essential to scale up domestic and foreign investment. These investments should be a catalyst for better quality jobs and an upgraded production structure, harnessing the potential of LAC’s endowments and of the green and digital transitions. Better governance and information are key to promoting effective and efficient public and private investments. Public institutions are fundamental to aligning investments with national development strategies while building stronger social contracts. The report presents a series of options for financing this new investment agenda, including innovative debt instruments and a renewed role for development finance institutions. The report also highlights the importance of reinvigorated international partnerships across the investment agenda.
  • 15-December-2023

    English

    Subnational investment promotion and decentralisation in the OECD - Strategies and institutions

    This paper explores different frameworks of subnational investment promotion and facilitation and focuses on the link between these frameworks and the degree of and the degree of countries’ decentralisation, their role in regional FDI attractiveness and local development, and their relations with the levels of FDI regional disparities. It also examines characteristics of subnational investment promotion strategies and the quality of institutional relationships within regions, across regions and with the central government.
  • 7-December-2023

    English

    Towards balanced regional attractiveness in Ireland - Enhancing the delivery of the National Planning Framework

    Ireland is highly centralised and fast growing, creating co-ordination challenges in terms of delivering key investments and in key policy areas like transport, housing and education. Actors across levels of government recognise a need for a more coordinated approach to the delivery of the National Planning Framework, the principal spatial planning strategy of Project Ireland 2040, which includes also the National Development Plan (public investment).The report has three objectives which ultimately aim to support more balanced regional outcomes in Ireland: i) to clarify the gaps in terms of regional attractiveness across and within Ireland’s regions, including in terms of population and investment attraction; ii) to assess the ability for the National Planning Framework – in its current form – to address these gaps, and iii) to consider what multi-level governance reforms and attractiveness policies can be introduced or scaled to generate more territorially-balanced development.
  • 5-December-2023

    English

    Financing SMEs for sustainability – Financial institution strategies and approaches - Results of an OECD survey of public and private financial institutions

    Banks and other financial institutions have a central role to play in supporting the net zero transition of the business sector and its millions of SMEs. They are working to integrate climate considerations in various aspects of their operations, including strategy, management and financial products. This calls for the development of new internal capacities and access to SME sustainability data and assessments which are currently difficult to obtain. This policy paper presents the findings of a 2023 survey of public development banks and private financial institutions, conducted by the by the OECD Platform on Financing SMEs for Sustainability. It provides insights on financial institutions' current approaches and plans for the integration of climate considerations in their SME operations. It also provides information on the offer of finance and non-financial support for SMEs’ net zero investments and on related SME climate-related data requirements.
  • 29-November-2023

    English

    Financing solutions to foster industrial decarbonisation in emerging and developing economies

    Industry decarbonisation is a cornerstone to reach net-zero emissions by this mid-century. The diversity of industrial activities, processes and products, the complexity of global industrial value chains, and the international competition make industry decarbonisation a challenging objective. Annual investments in low-carbon technologies for industry decarbonisation need to increase by a factor of three to five by 2030 compared to current levels to align industrial emissions with net-zero pathways. This paper analyses available financing solutions to scale up investments at pace, especially in emerging and developing economies where industrial production is growing rapidly whilst available finance is limited. It highlights de-risking and financial instruments and models that can help accelerate investments and draws lessons from twelve financing industry decarbonisation case studies which demonstrate how private capital can be mobilised.
  • 27-November-2023

    English

    FDI Qualities Review of Croatia - Advancing the Strategic Framework for Investment Promotion and Facilitation

    EU Funded Note The FDI Qualities Review of Croatia provides policy recommendations on the design and implementation of a new strategic framework for investment promotion and facilitation in Croatia. It provides an assessment of how foreign direct investment (FDI) contributes to sustainable development, including productivity and innovation, job quality and skills development, decarbonisation and regional development. It also examines the institutional and policy framework for investment promotion and facilitation at national and subnational levels. It gives an overview of Croatia’s investment incentives regime, focusing on the effective design and implementation of tax incentives. The report indicates potential areas for institutional and policy reform to improve Croatia’s investment climate and strengthen the economic, social and environmental benefits of FDI.
  • 22-November-2023

    English

    Misuse of Citizenship and Residency by Investment Programmes

    Citizenship and residency by investment (CBI/RBI) programmes are government-administered programmes that grant citizenship or residency to foreign investors by expediting or bypassing normal migration processes. These programmes can help spur economic growth through foreign direct investment, but they are also attractive to criminals and corrupt officials seeking to evade justice and launder the proceeds of crime reaching into the billions of dollars. This report highlights how CBI programmes can allow criminals more global mobility and help them hide their identity and criminal activities behind shell companies in other jurisdictions. It highlights the vulnerabilities of these complex and international investment migration programmes, including the frequent use of intermediaries, involvement of multiple government agencies, abuse by professional enablers and lack of proper governance of the CBI/RBI programmes. The report proposes measures and examples of good practice, that can help policy makers and those responsible for managing the investment migration programmes address these risks. These include an in-depth analysis and understanding of how criminals can exploit CBI or RBI programmes and incorporating risk mitigation measures, such as multi-layer due diligence, in the design of the investment migration programme.
  • 16-November-2023

    English

    Scaling Up the Mobilisation of Private Finance for Climate Action in Developing Countries - Challenges and Opportunities for International Providers

    This report explores evidence-based action areas to increase and accelerate the mobilisation of private finance for climate action in developing countries, and the role of international public finance providers in doing so. It draws on best-available data to provide disaggregated analysis of the sectoral, geographic and other features of private finance mobilised by public climate finance and presents key economy-wide, sector-specific, and institutional challenges to private finance mobilisation. The analysis is anchored in the context of the USD 100 billion climate finance goal, initially set for 2020 and extended to 2025, while also providing insights related to mobilising private finance for climate action in developing countries more broadly.
  • 4-November-2023

    English

    Sustainable Investment Policy Perspectives in the Southern African Development Community

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a large and dynamic regional economic community (REC) with the second highest level of regional integration among all African RECs. It has also been at the forefront of regional investment policymaking in Africa, with the Finance and Investment Protocol, the Investment Policy Framework, and the SADC Model Bilateral Investment Treaty. However, like much of Africa, SADC faces difficulties in attracting foreign direct investment which can contribute to sustainable development in the region. This report introduces newly developed OECD tools and analysis to the SADC region, including both FDI Qualities and a database on investment incentives. It is designed as a baseline diagnostic to explore ways to reinvigorate the reform of the SADC investment climate in order to prepare the region for the African Continental Free Trade Area, while also focusing on how to improve sustainable outcomes from investment. The report explores the national regulatory framework encapsulated in national investment laws and how this compares with initiatives at a regional level, investment promotion and facilitation in SADC, investment incentives, investment for green growth and responsible business conduct.
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