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  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Estonia 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Estonia. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Estonia was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Argentina, Canada, and Israel, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Poland 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Poland. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Poland was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Bulgaria, Germany, the United States, and Ukraine as observer, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Hungary 2024

    Governments adhering to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are required to set up a National Contact Point (NCP) that functions in a visible, accessible, transparent and accountable manner. This report contains a peer review of the Hungarian NCP, mapping its strengths and accomplishments and also identifying opportunities for improvement.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Türkiye 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Türkiye. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Türkiye was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Luxembourg and Peru, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Kazakhstan 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Kazakhstan. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Kazakhstan was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Egypt, France, and Korea, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 25-April-2024

    English

    Concentration of DeFi’s liquidity - Evidence from Decentralised Exchanges (DEXs) and Automated Market Makers (AMMs)

    Decentralised exchanges (DEXs) are on-chain platforms where traders can exchange one crypto-asset for another. DEXs play an increasingly important role in the decentralised finance (DeFi) market, particularly in the aftermath of the recent downturn in the crypto-asset market. This working paper explores the characteristics of DEXs and identifies areas of possible concentration in decentralised exchanges activity and potential associated risks. To substantiate the analysis, it uses an original on-chain dataset covering the largest DEXs. The paper reveals an increased concentration within DeFi trading in the sample observed, which could exacerbate vulnerabilities already present in DeFi markets.
  • 9-April-2024

    English

    Infrastructure for a Climate-Resilient Future

    This report provides an overview of the impacts of climate change on infrastructure , and key policy areas to be considered to render infrastructure more resilient. It discusses advances and persisting gaps in planning and developing infrastructure across its lifecycle to build in climate resilience and how this can be fostered by place-based approach. The report explores how climate risk awareness and understanding can be strengthened and become a norm for all financing and investment decisions, through standards and financial instruments that integrate climate adaptation and resilience. It includes a spotlight on nature-based solutions and offers insights on how nature can be harnessed as a cost-effective measure to build climate resilience. The report also recognises the specific needs of developing countries as requiring global attention for economic development and through strengthened international partnerships and support. Key policy insights are provided and advocate for national and subnational policy-makers to adopt a multi-level governance approach to resilience, working with infrastructure owners and operators to support decision-making.
  • 7-March-2024

    English

    Governments and firms need to address the key risks from a sharp increase in global bond borrowing

    At the end of 2023, the total volume of sovereign and corporate bond debt stood at almost USD 100 trillion, similar in size to global GDP, says a new OECD report.

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  • 7-March-2024

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    Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries 2024

    This publication provides comprehensive data on the volume, origin and types of aid and other resource flows to around 140 developing countries.  The data show each country's receipts of official development assistance as well as other official and private funds from members of the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD, multilateral agencies and other key providers. Key development indicators are given for reference.    Cette publication fournit des données détaillées sur le volume, la provenance and les types d'aide et d'autres apports de ressources attribués à chacun d'environ 140 pays en voie de développement. Les données statistiques couvrent les apports d'aide publique au développement et les autres financements publics et privés fournis à chaque pays bénéficiaire par chacun des membres du Comité d'aide au développement de l'OCDE, par les organismes multilatéraux ainsi que par d'autres fournisseurs.  Des indicateurs socio-économiques de base sont présentés pour information.
  • 4-March-2024

    English

    Cross-border investment into low-carbon infrastructure - An empirical glance

    This working paper provides a granular overview of investments into low-carbon infrastructure, both in the real economy and financial market. The descriptive analysis shows that there is room to scale up cross-border infrastructure investment and to shift investment into low-carbon assets. Specifically, low-carbon cross-border investment can be increased by shifting infrastructure investments, that currently flow into the financial economy, to the real economy and by incentivising the use of financing instruments, i.e., securitised products, that bundle projects and meet different liquidity tastes of investors. The analysis also highlights the important role of foreign direct investment (FDI) into infrastructure from foreign real economy companies.
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