Environment in emerging and transition economies


  • Designing policies for greener growth

    Enabling a more rapid shift towards greener, environmentally-sustainable growth in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), addressing both market and regulatory incentives and focus on reform of economic instruments and gradual phase out of environmentally harmful subsidies.

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  • Perspectives on Water-Energy-Food Nexus in EECCA

    Exploring the possibility for reinforcing a nexus-oriented approach to water management in the EECCA region.

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  • Facilitating access to finance

    Promoting a transparent and effective use of public environmentally-related spending in EECCA, examining how public policies could be designed to better catalyse and leverage private flows to low-carbon, green investments.

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‌Task Force for the Implementation of the Environmental Action Programme (the EAP Task Force)

The EAP Task Force supports the integration of environmental considerations into the processes of economic, social and political reform in transition economies of the Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) region*  by improving environmental policies and upgrading institutional and human capacities for better environmental management. Since the Task Force’s establishment in 1993, OECD has helped EECCA countries to accelerate the diffusion of innovative policies and policy tools. It assisted countries in conducting policy reform based, among others, on the outcomes of pilot projects. Some of the tools developed under the EAP Task Force umbrella are presented in an annex to the present document. The Task Force’s work has resulted in activities and tools targeted at OECD members in areas such as environmental compliance assurance, financing water supply and sanitation and public environmental expenditure management. 

* Member countries of the EAP Task Force are: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. International organisations and financial institutions, the business and civil society alco participates actively in the work of the Task Force. 

Read more on Task Force’s mission, substantive focus, working methods, members and the governance structure.


The Ministers at the Seventh “Environment for Europe” Ministerial Conference (21–23 September 2011, Astana, Kazakhstan) welcomed the work of the EAP Task Force and invited OECD to continue its work. The EAP Task Force 2012-15 Programme of Work is organised around two mutually-supportive themes:

Strengthening water management    Policies for green growth
 ‌© silverjohn - shutterstock.com    ‌© Toms93 - istockhoto.com

Work under this theme support economically, financially and environmentally sound management of water resources, including adaptation to climate change.

It also contributes to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on water supply and sanitation, so that good quality water and sanitation services are delivered reliably, sustainably and at least cost to the population.

Activities on water management are implemented by the OECD and the UNECE as strategic partners under the European Union Water Initiative (EUWI) in the EECCA region.

Read more about recent achievements of the EUWI in EECCA


Work in this area enables a more rapid shift towards greener, environmentally-oriented growth. Projects relate to market incentives and policy reforms needed to facilitate such transformation: integrating fiscal and environmental policies, fostering incentives for private sector contribution to green growth;  strengthening institutional frameworks and capacity.

The focus is primarily on the six Eastern Partnership countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine) following the launch of EaP GREEN, which is financed by the EU, and jointly implemented by the OECD, UNECE, UNEP and UNIDO.

Read more about the EaP GREEN programme