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  • 22-September-2022

    English

    Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2016-2020 - Insights from Disaggregated Analysis

    This report provides disaggregated data analysis of climate finance provided and mobilised in 2016-2020 across climate finance components, themes, sectors, and financial instruments. It also explores key trends and provides insight relating to the distribution and concentration of climate finance provided and mobilised across different developing country characteristics and groupings. The concluding chapter of the report provides further insights on the impacts and effectiveness of climate finance, as well as meaningful mitigation action and transparency on implementation. The findings complement the OECD report Aggregate Trends of Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2013-2020.
  • 19-September-2022

    English

    States of Fragility 2022

    States of Fragility 2022 arrives during an ‘age of crises’, where multiple, concurring crises are disproportionately affecting the 60 fragile contexts identified in this year’s report. Chief among these crises are COVID-19, Russia's invasion of Ukraine, and climate change, with the root causes of multidimensional fragility playing a central role in shaping their scale and severity. The report outlines the state of fragility in 2022, reviews current responses to it, and presents options to guide better policies for better lives in fragile contexts. At the halfway point of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is more critical than ever for development partners to focus on the furthest behind: the 1.9 billion people in fragile contexts that account for 24% of the world’s population but 73% of the world’s extreme poor.
  • 5-September-2022

    English

    Tax Morale II - Building Trust between Tax Administrations and Large Businesses

    The issue of trust between Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) and tax administrations is a vital part of the tax system, but relatively little studied. Building on previous OECD research on tax morale, which measures taxpayer perceptions and attitudes towards paying and evading taxes, this report presents new data on how tax administrations perceive MNE behaviour towards tax compliance. With a particular focus on the challenges facing developing countries, this report brings together this data with previous data on MNE perceptions, and the outcomes of a series of regional roundtables on tax morale held between tax administrations and MNEs. Having identified a number of challenges around trust, transparency and openness, the report sets out a range of approaches to help build trust, improve communications, and build more effective relationships between taxpayers and tax administrations.
  • 1-September-2022

    English

    Environment: OECD DAC External Development Finance Statistics

    The OECD DAC measures and monitors development finance targeting the environment using the environment marker. Introduced in 1992, this predates the Rio markers. Reporting on ODA flows has been mandatory since 1998. Reporting on non-credit OOF flows was introduced in 2010 on a voluntary basis.

    Related Documents
  • 31-July-2022

    English

    Chile’s perspective on Total Official Support for Sustainable Development

    Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD) is a new metric that measures official flows, and private flows mobilised by the official sector, to support sustainable development in developing countries. This pilot study seeks the perspective of Chile (a dual provider/recipient of development co-operation) on the concept and methodology of TOSSD. It estimates TOSSD flows from Chile in support of sustainable development and carries out a light assessment of its capacity to report on TOSSD.
  • 31-July-2022

    English

    Total Official Support for Sustainable Development - Data comparison study for Bangladesh, Cameroon and Colombia

    The TOSSD statistical framework aims to provide a complete picture of all official resources flowing into developing countries for their sustainable development, providing reliable, comparable and transparent data. This working paper compares the TOSSD data for the year 2019 with datasets collected by three countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon and Colombia. The study explores similarities and differences between the TOSSD data and the data collected at the local level, and provides recommendations on how to improve data completeness and accuracy. It also suggests how a data validation mechanism for TOSSD could work, allowing recipient countries to provide timely feedback.
  • 31-July-2022

    English

    Boosting African cities' resilience to climate change - The role of green spaces

    The next few decades will bring an era of rapid urbanisation and unprecedented climate stress in African cities. Green spaces can boost the resilience of cities to heat waves, floods, landslides, and even coastal erosion, in addition, to enhancing sustainability by improving air quality, protecting biodiversity, and absorbing carbon. All of which can enhance well-being. Yet, data on the availability of green spaces in African urban agglomerations is scarce. This analysis fills the gap by combining new and novel data sources to estimate the availability of green spaces in 5 625 urban agglomerations with 10 000 inhabitants and above. The rest of the report then uses this novel dataset to first evaluate the dynamics between urbanisation and green spaces, and second, explore the potential of green spaces to boost the resilience and sustainability of cities in the future. The results show that as urban agglomerations become larger and more compact, green spaces disappear, exacerbating their vulnerability to climate change and deteriorating liveability. However, building taller buildings (i.e., growing vertically), offers a way for cities to grow whilst minimising loss of green space. Results show that more green space can boost sustainability by significantly lowering air pollution in African cities, which could be vital for public health in the future since outdoor air pollution is rising. The potential for green spaces to enhance resilience to climate events, like heat waves, depends on the location of green spaces throughout the city and the percentage of the population that lives close to a green space (i.e., within 300 metres). Green spaces may play a limited role in coping with heat waves in a city like Khartoum where only 3% of the population lives close to a green space, but could be a nature-based solution to heat waves in a city like Abuja, where 55% of the population can benefit from its cooling effects. Moving forward, local actors have clear evidence of the power of green spaces to build a sustainable and resilient future. Still, the report reveals that local actors need support from regional and national actors to realise the potential of green spaces.
  • 29-July-2022

    English

  • 29-July-2022

    English

    Aggregate Trends of Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2013-2020

    The report Aggregate Trends of Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2013-2020 adds figures for 2020 to the previously published 2013-2019 time series, providing an aggregate-level assessment against the initial target year of the USD 100 billion goal. It also includes an overview of climate finance provided and mobilised by climate theme, sector, financial instrument and regions for 2016-2020. A second complementary report provides further insights from disaggregated data analysis, as well as considerations on issues relating to enabling environments, impacts and effectiveness of climate finance.
  • 27-July-2022

    English

    Aid for Trade at a Glance 2022 - Empowering Connected, Sustainable Trade

    This report analyses the evolution of Aid for Trade flows in a context marked by crises of unprecedented magnitude, with significant impacts on trade and investment. Under the theme 'Empowering Connected, Sustainable Trade', it shows that Aid for Trade was an important tool in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, and can help address emerging challenges, such as the environmental and digital transitions while ensuring that no one is left behind. Recent data indicate that a shift is under way to put sustainability, including green transition and women’s empowerment, at the heart of Aid for Trade, and point to its potential to support an inclusive and sustainable recovery.
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