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Publications & Documents


  • 22-November-2021

    English

    Services trade in the United Kingdom and the global economy

    Services play a more important role in trade and employment in the United Kingdom than in most other OECD countries. The UK services sector is supported by an open and transparent trade regime, policies that support competition and innovation, and regulatory transparency that facilitates the creation of new services businesses and start-ups. That said, certain barriers to services trade remain. This report sheds light on the role of services trade in the UK economy, describing recent trends and highlighting future challenges, and explores policy options to support a sustainable recovery from the COVID-19 crisis.
  • 10-November-2021

    English

    The Circular Economy in Glasgow, United Kingdom

    The transition to a circular economy in Glasgow is part of a broader journey of the city aiming to transition from being one of the greatest industrial places in the world back in the 19th century, to becoming a carbon-neutral city by 2030. The 2020 Glasgow Circular Economy Route Map seeks to enable a system where people can access local jobs and where green business practices contribute to achieving zero carbon goals. This new path, primarily driven by the collaboration between Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, Zero Waste Scotland and Glasgow City Council, can also contribute to the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, which severely affected the local economy. This report summarises the findings from a 20-month policy dialogue between the OECD, the city of Glasgow and several stakeholders, presenting the state of the art of the circular transition, the main challenges and the ways forward for the implementation of the city’s Route Map.
  • 9-November-2021

    English, PDF, 513kb

    Health at a Glance 2021: Key findings for the United Kingdom

    Life expectancy fell by a year in the UK in 2020; COVID 19 vaccinations have plateaued despite a strong start. Health at a Glance 2021 provides the latest comparable data and trends on the performance of health systems in OECD countries and key emerging economies. Alongside indicator-by-indicator analysis, this edition offers a special chapter on the health impact of COVID-19.

  • 6-November-2021

    English

    Enhancing the effectiveness of sub-national biodiversity policy - Practices in France and Scotland, United Kingdom

    Sub-national governments have a key role in delivering on national and international biodiversity commitments. Drawing on policy practices from Scotland (UK), France and other signatories to the Edinburgh Declaration, this paper provides an overview and analysis of sub-national strategies, plans and mechanisms to ensure policy coherence and co-ordination. It then examines the policy instruments that subnational governments can leverage to deliver positive biodiversity outcomes. The paper highlights, among other things, the need to: develop clear and measurable biodiversity targets at sub-national level; incorporate biodiversity considerations into sub-national climate action plans and urban, rural and regional development strategies, plans and instruments; and promote nature-based solutions at a sub-national level to harness synergies between climate mitigation, climate adaptation and biodiversity.
  • 18-October-2021

    English

    Schooling During a Pandemic - The Experience and Outcomes of Schoolchildren During the First Round of COVID-19 Lockdowns

    This report offers an initial overview of the available information regarding the circumstances, nature and outcomes of the education of schoolchildren during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns of March-April 2020. Its purpose is primarily descriptive: it presents information from high quality quantitative studies on the experience of learning during this period in order to ground the examination and discussion of these issues in empirical examples. Information is presented on three interrelated topics: the nature of the educational experience during the period of lockdowns and school closures; the home environment in which education took place for the vast majority of schoolchildren; the effects on the mental health and learning outcomes for children during this period. The data come primarily from 5 countries (France, Germany, Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States) with additional information on some aspects for 6 additional countries (Australia, Belgium (Flanders), Canada, Finland, Italy and the Netherlands). This report will be of interest to policy makers, academics, education stakeholders and anyone interested in a first international empirical analysis of the effects of the pandemic on the lives and education of schoolchildren.
  • 31-August-2021

    English

    Upper-secondary education student assessment in Scotland - A comparative perspective

    Scotland’s Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) is a pioneering example of curriculum reform, but the qualifications for upper-secondary school students have seen far less reform. Exam cancellations in 2020-21, and the debates generated provide an opportunity to radically reconsider the assessment system. This paper compares the Scottish system to four other British legacy systems and five other legacy traditions, to offer insight for how Scotland could improve the alignment between CfE and upper-secondary assessments. Theoretical considerations further guide the analysis on what constitutes a dependable and trustworthy assessment system, to refine the reflection around options for the Scottish system. Three major themes emerge from this comparative review: external assessments could be more innovative to capture a wider range of student capabilities; the role of teacher assessment could be reconsidered; and the academic and vocational strands could be better integrated with the assessment system to offer a broader range of curriculum options.
  • 30-July-2021

    English

    Value chains in public marine data - A UK case study

    Marine data play a crucial role for many scientific disciplines, as well as for very diverse operational services such as fisheries management, environmental planning, marine conservation, weather forecasting, or port management. The information derived from marine data is also increasingly finding its way into a wide and varied range of public policy arenas and private industries. Collecting, distributing and archiving public marine data provide benefits to society at large, however as with all public investments, assessments are needed to provide evidence to decision makers. Based on an original survey of UK marine data users, this paper explores pathways through which marine data are used and transformed into actionable information, creating systematised value chains for the first time. The analysis unveils trends in current marine data uses in the UK and key benefits of data uses. The paper lays the foundations for further OECD work with the marine data community.
  • 22-July-2021

    English

    COVID-19, productivity and reallocation: Timely evidence from three OECD countries

    The longer run consequences of the pandemic will partly hinge on its impact on high productivity firms, and the ongoing process of labour reallocation from low to high productivity firms. While Schumpeter (1939) proposed that recessions can accelerate this process, the nature of the COVID-19 shock coupled with a policy response that prioritised preservation (over reallocation) raises questions about whether job reallocation remained productivity-enhancing. Using novel, near-real-time data for Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, this paper shows that while labour turnover fell in response to the pandemic, job reallocation remained connected to firm productivity – that is, high productivity firms were more likely to expand and low productivity firms were more likely to contract. The pandemic coincided with a temporary strengthening of the reallocation-productivity link in Australia – but a weakening in New Zealand – which appears related to the design of job retention schemes. Finally, firms that intensively used Apps to manage their business were more resilient, even after controlling for productivity. Thus, while policy partly suppressed creative destruction, the nature of the shock – i.e. one where being online and able to operate remotely were key – favoured high productivity and tech-savvy firms, resulting in a reallocation of labour to such firms. The use of timely, novel data to investigate the allocative effects of the pandemic marks a significant advance, given that the seminal paper on productivity-enhancing reallocation during the Great Recession arrived some six years after Lehman Brothers collapsed.
  • 13-July-2021

    English

    The impact of COVID-19 on corporate fragility in the United Kingdom: Insights from a new calibrated firm-level Corporate Sector Agent-Based (CAB) Model

    Covid-19 and the associated restrictions on interaction have led to an unprecedented shock to activity and firms’ balance sheets. To assess the impact, this paper applies a new large-scale firm-level simulation model calibrated to the United Kingdom (UK). The paper specifically examines the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (CJRS) furlough program and a credit guarantee. The Corporate Sector Agent-Based (CAB) Model (Hillman, Barnes, Wharf and MacDonald, 2021) takes into account: heterogeneity across firms; interactions between firms across a realistic customer-supplier network; and rule-of-thumb behaviour by firms and bankruptcy constraints. The model amplifies the effect of shocks and generates substantial persistence and overshooting, as well as displaying a number of non-linearities. The CAB uses a data-rich approach based on ORBIS firm-level data and the OECD Input-Output tables. Simulations in this paper are calibrated to the observed path of UK output in 2020.
  • 13-July-2021

    English

    Dynamics of farm performance and policy impacts: Case studies - Case Studies

    This paper provides detailed farm level data evidence on the dynamics of farm performance from case studies covering crop farms in Australia, France, Italy and the United Kingdom (England and Wales), and dairy farms in the Czech Republic, Denmark and Norway, with different recent sample periods of five to thirty years. An increase in productivity over time is common to all countries and most crop farm classes, but productivity dynamics vary significantly. In Australia, strong productivity growth among the most productive crop farms has led to an increase in the gap between the highest and lowest performing farms; whereas in France, Italy and the United Kingdom, productivity growth was weak among the most productive crop farms and the lowest performing farms closed the productivity gap. Productivity also increased among dairy farms, with an increasing gap between the most and the least productive farm classes in the three sample countries. The impact of policy changes on performance dynamics is analysed for decoupled payments in France and England, and dairy payments in the Czech Republic. The main findings across countries and policy implications are discussed in OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Paper N°164.
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