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  • 3-May-2022

    English

    Are industrial policy instruments effective? - A review of the evidence in OECD countries

    While the case for industrial policy is gaining traction across OECD countries, little consensus exists on the effectiveness of such interventions. Building on a new analytical framework for industrial policy developed in a companion paper, this paper reviews the empirical literature on the effectiveness of industrial policy instruments, laying out the knowns and unknowns. Overall, it strongly supports the premise that well-designed economic incentives for firms and good framework conditions shaping the business environment are effective. At the same time, it emphasises the limited and inconclusive nature of the evidence regarding the increasingly frequent targeted and demand-side instruments. Finally, it underlines the complementarities between economic incentives and other interventions such as skill policies or framework conditions, notably competition and trade policies. Framework conditions are indeed key in enabling the most productive firms to grow and an important channel for structural change.
  • 3-May-2022

    English

    An industrial policy framework for OECD countries - Old debates, new perspectives

    The debate on industrial policy has made a comeback in both academic and policy circles. Yet, no consensus exists on an industrial policy paradigm and the absence of a common reference framework unduly obfuscates the debate – even which interventions are to be considered 'industrial policy' is not clear-cut. Against this background, this paper proposes a coherent framework for analysing the formulation of industrial policy, relying on a purposefully broad definition of the latter. Leveraging the proposed framework and a companion paper which synthetises the available empirical evidence, this paper stresses the complementarities between policy instruments, thereby justifying the use of industrial strategies, acknowledges the role of targeted industrial strategies, which can direct technological change and growth, and of demand-side instruments, which can contribute to transformative industrial change, but calls for a stronger emphasis on evaluation and the regular re-assessment of targeted industrial strategies.
  • 2-May-2022

    English

    2023 Forum on Responsible Mineral Supply Chains

    The 16th Forum on Responsible Mineral Supply Chains is hosted by the OECD as a hybrid event on 24-28 April 2023 and brings together representatives from government, business, and civil society.

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  • 14-April-2022

    English

    International investment law

    The OECD is a forum where treaty negotiators and experts from OECD and non-OECD countries work together to enhance common understanding of core treaty provisions and emerging legal issues and to improve outcomes of international investment treaties for governments and investors. This page provides a comprehensive overview of OECD work in this domain.

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  • 1-April-2022

    English

    Intellectual property (IP) statistics and analysis

    The context in which intellectual property currently operates is very different from the one in which IP rights were conceived. IP systems are undergoing continuous changes as they seek to optimise the balance between private and social benefits to contribute to economic growth and the welfare of societies.

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  • 31-March-2022

    English

    91st Session of the Steel Committee, virtual meeting, 29-31 March 2022

    The Steel Committee held in-depth discussions on the global steel market situation and outlook, challenges facing the global steel industry including market-distorting government interventions and growing excess capacity, and policy approaches to ensure a level playing field in the sector.

  • 30-March-2022

    English

    Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector

    Adopted in 2017, the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector establishes a common understanding of due diligence in the sector to help companies meet the due diligence expectations laid out in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

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  • 29-March-2022

    English

    Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2022 - An OECD Scoreboard

    The COVID-19 crisis caused profound disruptions in the global economy, with SMEs and entrepreneurs, particularly hard hit. Swift measures implemented by governments and public financial institutions provided a crucial lifeline for liquidity-strapped SMEs. The 10th edition of Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2022: An OECD Scoreboard sheds light on the impacts of the crisis on SME finance, tracking the latest developments in debt, equity, asset-based finance, and framework conditions, along with recent policy developments for 48 countries around the world. It shows that lending continued to flow to SMEs during the pandemic, with unprecedented growth in outstanding SME loans. What is more, credit conditions relaxed significantly: interest rates registered record lows, interest rate spreads narrowed considerably, and collateral requirements declined in most Scoreboard countries. In contrast, alternative sources of finance such as leasing and factoring declined significantly, in part because of the large uptake of credit. Evidence on equity finance shows a resilient venture capital sector, with some fragility in early-stage finance. The thematic chapter of this report assesses the evolution of SME financing support during the crisis, from the rescue to recovery phases. It documents a fall in the level of SME-related support in national recovery packages compared to earlier rescue measures.
  • 29-March-2022

    English

    New OECD report shows loans to SMEs hit new heights during the pandemic, as small firms face renewed pressures during the recovery

    A new OECD report, “Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2022: An OECD Scoreboard” shows that outstanding SME loans increased significantly during the first year of the pandemic. The median stock of SME loans increased by 4.9%, the highest upturn registered since the OECD Scoreboard was created 10 years ago.

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  • 24-March-2022

    English

    Input-Output Tables (IOTs)

    The OECD Input-Output Tables illustrate the flows between the sales and purchases (final and intermediate) of industry outputs.

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