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  • 11-March-2021

    English

    Uruguay has adhered to the OECD Declaration on International Investment

    Uruguay became the 50th adherent to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises on 25 February 2021 in recognition of its impressive progress in pursuing investment policy reforms to improve the country's business climate and encourage the positive contribution investment can make to economic, environmental and social progress.

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  • 11-March-2021

    English

    Bilateral Trade in Goods by Industry and End-use Category

    The STAN Bilateral Trade Database by Industry and End-use category (BTDIxE) provides values of exports and imports of goods for OECD countries and a large number of non member economies. Data are presented in USD, by partner country, industry and end-use category from 1990 onwards.

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  • 11-March-2021

    English

    OECD legal instruments on international investment

    The OECD is a global leader in efforts to establish internationally agreed rules and standards for policies on capital movements, international investment, investment statistics, and responsible business conduct. These rules are laid down in legally binding instruments or recommendations that enshrine a broad consensus on good policy design.

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  • 9-March-2021

    English

    Future-Proofing Adult Learning in London, United Kingdom

    Cities are not only home to around half of the global population but are also at the forefront of the transformation of jobs, skills and labour markets. Furthermore, cities play a leading role in the COVID-19 response, as the pandemic is not only accelerating megatrends such as digitalisation and automation that change the world of work, but is also challenging city economies. In London, COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented labour market shock, with several service sectors having been devastated. The crisis and its impact on employment and firms make skills development and adult learning more important than ever. London is the first major city within the OECD to introduce a comprehensive skills strategy. The report Future-Proofing Adult Learning in London, UK analyses London’s capacity to design effective adult learning programmes, which are critical for a strong and sustainable economic recovery and for preparing for the future of work. The report sheds light on major challenges facing London, especially in light of COVID-19, while also pointing to opportunities for London to design a future-ready adult learning system that responds to the impacts of the pandemic and aligns training to rapidly evolving labour market demands.
  • 4-March-2021

    English

    The firm-level link between productivity dispersion and wage inequality - A symptom of low job mobility?

    Differences in average wages across firms – which account for around one-half of overall wage inequality – are mainly explained by differences in firm wage premia (the part of wages that depends exclusively on characteristics of firms) rather than workforce composition. Using a new cross-country dataset of linked employer-employee data, this paper investigates the role of cross-firm dispersion in productivity in explaining dispersion in firm wage premia, as well as the factors shaping the link between productivity and wages at the firm level. The results suggest that around 15% of cross-firm differences in productivity are passed on to differences in firm wage premia. The degree of pass-through is systematically larger in countries and industries with more limited job mobility, where low-productivity firms can afford to pay lower wage premia relative to high-productivity ones without a substantial fraction of workers quitting their jobs. Stronger product market competition raises pass-through while more centralised bargaining and higher minimum wages constrain firm-level wage setting at any given level of productivity dispersion. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that the key priority should be to promote job mobility, which would reduce wage differences between firms while easing the efficient reallocation of workers across them.
  • 23-February-2021

    English

    Management, skills and productivity

    This paper studies how industries’ investment in organisational capital (OC) and workforce skills relate to productivity, building on OECD estimates of OC, output data from the OECD Structural Analysis (STAN) database, and both cognitive and task-based skill indicators from the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The paper finds that at the industry level, workers’ numeracy and endowment of skills related to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) correlate positively with productivity, and that the positive correlation of STEM skills with productivity is generally larger for OC workers. The paper also finds evidence that skills dispersion harms industry performance. A gap between the ICT skills of OC and non-OC workers seems to trigger a 'lost in translation' type of mechanism, whereby communication and information flows become less fluid and impinge upon the economic performance of sectors, correlating negatively with productivity.
  • 19-February-2021

    English

    The Future of Business Survey

    The Future of Business Survey, a partnership between Facebook, OECD, and The World Bank, is a new source of information on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

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  • 18-February-2021

    English

    Business dynamism during the COVID-19 pandemic: Which policies for an inclusive recovery?

    This note looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected business dynamism, how support to businesses has affected bankruptcy rates, and what countries can do to support a strong and resilient recovery.

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  • 11-February-2021

    English

    Global Value Chains (GVCs)

    The emergence of GVCs challenges our conventional wisdom on how we look at economic globalisation and in particular the policies that we develop around it. The OECD is preparing a broad range of work to help policy makers understand the effects of GVCs on a number of policy domains.

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  • 11-February-2021

    English

    Encouraging vulnerability treatment - Overview for policy makers

    Most digital security incidents are caused by malicious actors (e.g. cybercriminals and state-sponsored groups) exploiting vulnerabilities in organisations’ digital ecosystems. Addressing vulnerabilities before attackers take advantage of them is an effective means of reducing the probability of cybersecurity incidents. This paper discusses vulnerabilities in products’ code such as software and firmware, and in how products are implemented in information systems. It shows that the technical community has progressed in developing good practice for treating vulnerabilities, including through co-ordinated vulnerability disclosure (CVD). However, significant economic and social challenges prevent stakeholders from adopting good practice, such as legal frameworks that do not sufficiently protect 'ethical hackers' from legal proceedings. The paper stresses that public policies aimed at removing obstacles and encouraging vulnerability treatment could significantly reduce digital security risk for all. The findings from this paper will inform the development of a new OECD Recommendation in this area.
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