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Publications & Documents


  • 1-March-2023

    English

    Driving low-carbon innovations for climate neutrality

    The transition to climate neutrality requires cost reductions in existing clean technologies to enable rapid deployment on a large scale, as well as the development of emerging technologies such as green hydrogen. This policy paper argues that science, technology, innovation, and industrial (STI&I) policies focusing on developing and deploying low-carbon technologies are crucial to achieving carbon neutrality. It notes however that the current level of innovation is insufficient to meet the net-zero challenge due to a policy emphasis on deployment rather than research and development (R&D) support. The paper explores the rationale for more ambitious STI&I policies targeted at R&D for climate neutrality and provides policy recommendations for an effective innovation policy for net-zero, including its interaction with the broader climate policy package.
  • 24-February-2023

    English

    Culture and the creative economy in Flanders, Belgium

    Cultural and creative sectors are a significant driver of local development both through direct job creation and income generation but also indirectly by spurring innovation across the economy. Beyond their economic impacts, they also have significant social impacts, from supporting health and well-being to promoting social inclusion and local social capital. Flanders (Belgium) has placed cultural and creative sectors as a priority in the region’s economic and social strategy. This paper provides an overview of cultural and creative sectors in Flanders, highlighting trends in employment, business dynamics, entrepreneurship and financing as well as cultural participation. It offers analysis and recommendations to support the region in continuing to build on its local cultural and creative ecosystem.
  • 23-February-2023

    English

    Advancing accountability in AI - Governing and managing risks throughout the lifecycle for trustworthy AI

    This report presents research and findings on accountability and risk in AI systems by providing an overview of how risk-management frameworks and the AI system lifecycle can be integrated to promote trustworthy AI. It also explores processes and technical attributes that can facilitate the implementation of values-based principles for trustworthy AI and identifies tools and mechanisms to define, assess, treat, and govern risks at each stage of the AI system lifecycle. This report leverages OECD frameworks – including the OECD AI Principles, the AI system lifecycle, and the OECD framework for classifying AI systems – and recognised risk-management and due-diligence frameworks like the ISO 31000 risk-management framework, the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Business Conduct, and the US National Institute of Standards and Technology’s AI risk-management framework.
  • 22-February-2023

    English

    The economic benefits of early green innovation - Evidence from the automotive sector

    The economic consequences for firms investing in green innovation, and therefore their incentives to innovate, are not well understood. This paper empirically assesses the economic returns on innovation in cleaner vehicles. The analysis uses data on passenger car market shares and patents for car manufacturers operating in eight countries for the period 2005-2021. The results show that, when vehicle fuel prices increase, firms having previously successfully filed patents related to both electric and hybrid vehicles and fuel efficiency experience an increase in their market share. This increase takes place between 7 and 8 years after the patent stock is accumulated for patents related to electric and hybrid vehicles and between 8 and 15 years for patents related to fuel efficiency. The analysis also finds that in contexts where fuel price salience is high, price increases generate larger and earlier competitiveness returns for firms having previously invested in cleaner technologies.
  • 21-February-2023

    English

    Global Value Chains (GVCs)

    The emergence of GVCs challenges our conventional wisdom on how we look at economic globalisation and in particular the policies that we develop around it. The OECD is preparing a broad range of work to help policy makers understand the effects of GVCs on a number of policy domains.

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  • 21-February-2023

    English

    OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2023

    This report presents a comprehensive overview of productivity in OECD and, to the extent possible, G20 economies. The different chapters feature an analysis of labour productivity levels, labour and multifactor productivity growth, labour productivity by firm size, investment and labour income across countries. This edition also presents important insights on productivity measurement and evolution since the COVID-19 pandemic, including a shift-share analysis showing how within-industry developments and reallocations across industries have contributed to aggregate labour productivity developments in the recent period and in the longer term.
  • 21-February-2023

    English

    Policies to strengthen the resilience of global value chains - Empirical evidence from the COVID-19 shock

    Widespread supply disruptions in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian Federation’s large-scale aggression against Ukraine have raised concerns among policy makers that globalised value chains expose domestic production to shocks from abroad. This paper uses new indicators of global value chain dependencies and exogenous pandemic shocks to econometrically estimate the effects of supply disruptions abroad on domestic output. The results suggest that the adverse effects of supply disruptions are particularly large when concentration of supplying countries and supplying firms is high. Counterfactual simulations of the econometric model suggest that diversification of suppliers would have sizeable benefits in terms of shielding domestic production against country-specific supply shocks, with partial onshoring of production having only small additional benefits. Technological innovation that reduces foreign dependencies, such as the substitution of renewable energies for fossil fuels, can have similar benefits as diversification.
  • 16-February-2023

    English

    OECD Forum on Due Diligence in the Garment and Footwear Sector

    This annual event brings together over 600 representatives from government, business, trade unions and civil society to address emerging risks and to share learnings on implementing labour, human rights, environmental and integrity due diligence in global garment and footwear supply chains.

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  • 16-February-2023

    English

    New approaches to shipbuilding capacity assessments

    Accurate measurement of shipbuilding capacity is critical to inform market stakeholders of excess capacity issues. This report presents several approaches to improve the estimates of shipbuilding capacity. It shows how the use of average production would allow for smoothening the proxy of capacity in the yard-by-yard production approach. It discusses how firm level indicators, such as productivity, can also be considered. An analysis of productivity developments for a sample of shipbuilding firms shows that their productivity evolves in function of the market situation which, therefore, should be taken into account in the proxies of capacity based on yard production. Finally, the report studies how mergers and acquisitions of shipbuilding firms may impact capacity.
  • 16-February-2023

    English

    The slowdown in Finnish productivity growth - Causes and consequences

    This report analyses the trends in Finnish productivity growth over the 2000s and 2010s. It describes its key features, makes comparisons to a benchmark of 16 OECD countries, and studies the causes of its sudden and prolonged slowdown which began at the end of the 2000s. The analysis focuses on the role of two contemporaneous demand shocks that hit the Finnish economy: the Nokia crisis and the Great Trade Collapse of 2009. Matching detailed firm-based information on structural characteristics of productivity growth with global input-output tables and National Accounts data, the report highlights how the prolonged drop in demand from the domestic computer and electronics sector may have induced a persistent drag on Finnish productivity growth. The report concludes with policy implications to strengthen Finnish resilience to idiosyncratic shocks to key sectors or large firms, while supporting long-term productivity growth and competitiveness.
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