Publications & Documents

  • 11-April-2023


    A portrait of AI adopters across countries - Firm characteristics, assets’ complementarities and productivity

    This report analyses the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in firms across 11 countries. Based on harmonised statistical code (AI diffuse) applied to official firm-level surveys, it finds that the use of AI is prevalent in ICT and Professional Services and more widespread across large – and to some extent across young – firms. AI users tend to be more productive, especially the largest ones. Complementary assets, including ICT skills, high-speed digital infrastructure, and the use of other digital technologies, which are significantly related to the use of AI, appear to play a critical role in the productivity advantages of AI users.
  • 5-April-2023


    The Heterogeneity of Steel Decarbonisation Pathways

    The iron and steel sector accounts for almost 8% of global emissions, making it one of the highest emitting industry sectors with around 30% of industrial carbon emissions. Decarbonising the steel sector is therefore key to achieving climate goals. This report, prepared for the 2023 Japanese G7 Presidency, demonstrates that considering the heterogeneity of steel industries is vital for reaching climate goals and for a just and inclusive transition to a low-carbon future. The report maps the heterogeneity of global steel industries, highlighting the differences between them in key areas relevant to decarbonisation. Additionally, it examines how these differences should be considered when developing definitions for near-zero and low-emissions steel production, as well as emissions measurement methodologies and data collection frameworks.
  • 30-March-2023


    Policy Toolkit for Strengthening FDI and SME Linkages

    Strengthening linkages between foreign direct investment (FDI) and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is important to boost productivity and innovation across countries and regions in the OECD and beyond. This policy toolkit offers policy advice to national and subnational governments on how to increase knowledge and technology benefits from FDI on domestic SMEs and the local economy. It presents a conceptual framework for understanding the main enabling conditions and diffusion channels of FDI-SME linkages and spillovers, and a set of diagnostic tools to assess the spillover potential. It also provides an assessment tool for policy and institutional frameworks enabling FDI-SME linkages. This toolkit benefits from insights of a pilot mapping of policy initiatives across the 27 EU Member States, which are described in the second part of the report.
  • 29-March-2023

    English, PDF, 2,306kb

    OECD Code of Liberalisation of Capital Movements

    This publication presents the full text of the OECD Code of Liberalisation of Capital Movements under which adhering countries have accepted legally binding obligations.

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  • 20-March-2023


    Beyond pink-collar jobs for women and the social economy

    Building on many data sources and country examples on women’s employment in the social and solidarity economy (SSE) the report: i) analyses women’s employment in the SSE, ii) explores challenges to gender equality in the SSE and, iii) provides policy recommendations to recognise women’s work and leadership in the SSE and in the wider economy. It also suggests ways to foster their participation in high-growth sectors within the SSE, such as technology-intensive and green sectors.
  • 16-March-2023


    OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2023 - Enabling Transitions in Times of Disruption

    Sociotechnical systems in areas like energy, agrifood and mobility need to transform rapidly to become more sustainable and resilient. Science, technology and innovation (STI) have essential roles in these transformations, but governments must be more ambitious and act with greater urgency in their STI policies to meet these challenges. They should design policy portfolios that enable transformative innovation and new markets to emerge, challenge existing fossil-based systems, and create windows of opportunity for low-carbon technologies to break through. This calls for larger investments but also greater directionality in research and innovation, for example, through mission-oriented policies, to help direct and compress the innovation cycle for low-carbon technologies. International co-operation will be essential, but rising geopolitical tensions, including strategic competition in key emerging technologies, could make this difficult. OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2023 explores these and other key issues and trends that present STI with a new operating environment to which it must adapt.
  • 15-March-2023


    OECD Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs Scoreboard: 2023 Highlights

    The 'OECD Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs Scoreboard: 2023 Highlights' document SME and entrepreneurship financing trends, conditions and policy developments. The report provides official data on SME financing in close to 50 countries, including indicators on debt, equity, asset-based finance and financing conditions. Data for 2021 are complemented by available information for 2022, along with demand-side information and recent developments in public policy and private initiatives to support SME finance. Findings reveal that most economies showed the beginnings of a dynamic recovery from the COVID-19 crisis in 2021. However, data available for 2022 point to a deterioration in a number of SME finance indicators, due to high inflation and rising interest rates, exacerbated by the effects of Russia's war against Ukraine. These factors are impacting the accessibility and cost of debt finance for SMEs, and foreshadow a slowdown in lending. Likewise, equity finance showed a significant decline in 2022. In this context, governments should continue to foster the diversification of SME financing instruments and channels to enable them to build resilience and undertake crucial investments, such as those in digitalisation and greening.
  • 10-March-2023


    OECD Codes of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and of Current Invisible Operations

    Adopted in 1961, the OECD Codes are key elements of the international framework for economic co-operation and founding legal instruments of the OECD. Since 2012, the Codes are open to adherence by non-OECD members and in 2019, a major review of the instruments was endorsed by OECD Ministers.

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  • 7-March-2023


    OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Scoreboard

    The new STI.Scoreboard platform provides a resource to retrieve, visualise, compare and share over 1000 statistical indicators of science, technology and innovation systems across OECD countries and other economies.

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  • 1-March-2023


    How the green and digital transitions are reshaping the automotive ecosystem

    The automotive sector is important across OECD countries in terms of value-added and R&D, but is also heavily affected by the green and the digital transformations. This paper offers a novel and holistic view of the automotive sector and its surrounding ecosystem based on a combination of Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) tables, patent data, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions, cross-country micro-distributed data and firm-level balance sheet data. It identifies the boundaries of this industrial ecosystem including connected sectors (e.g. upstream and downstream) as well as knowledge and technology providers (e.g. universities or the digital industry). The paper documents emerging trends at the geographical and technological levels and provides a comprehensive assessment of the ecosystem’s changing microstructure, with a growing role of young and digital-intensive companies. Finally, it provides recommendations for effective public policies to support the automotive ecosystem, with a focus on innovation, competition and the growth of young firms.
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