Industry and globalisation

Trade in Value Added


TiVA database


The goods and services we buy are composed of inputs from various countries around the world. However, the flows of goods and services within these global production chains are not always reflected in conventional measures of international trade.

The development of Trade in Value-Added (TiVA) addresses this issue by considering the value added by each country in the production of goods and services that are consumed worldwide. TiVA indicators are designed to better inform policy makers by providing new insights into the commercial relations between nations.

The indicators are expressed in USD millions at current prices, in case of values, or in percent, in case of shares.

Data presented in the TiVA database provide insights into:

  • Domestic and foreign value added content of gross exports by exporting industry
  • Services content of gross exports by exporting industry, by type of service and value added origin
  • Participation in global value chains (GVCs) via intermediate imports embodied in exports (backward linkages) and domestic value added in partners’ exports and final demand (forward linkages)
  • 'Global orientation' of industrial activity, i.e. share of industry valued added that meets foreign final demand
  • Country and industry origins of value added in final demand, including the origin of value added in final consumption (by households and government) and in GFCF (investment by businesses)
  • Bilateral trade relationships based on flows of value added embodied in domestic final demand
  • Inter-regional and intra-regional relationships
  • Domestic value added content of imports

TiVA indicators: coverage

The 2021 edition of the TiVA database provides indicators for 66 economies and covering the period 1995-2018. The industry list which covers 45 unique industrial activities organised in a hierarchy (including aggregates for total manufactures and total services).

TiVA indicators are estimated from the OECD Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) tables which are based on statistics compiled according to the 2008 System of National Accounts (SNA 2008) from national, regional and international sources and use an industry list compatible with the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 4.


Guide to TiVA Indicators (2021 edition)


TiVA indicators: access to OECD.Stat

Note:  Related files, in zipped CSV and R formats, are attached to the datasets. In case of issue when downloading, right-click and select "save as".



On 17 November 2021, the OECD hosted an online event to introduce the 2021 edition of the Trade in Value Added (TiVA) database and the underlying Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) tables and their uses.


Country notes



Australia Greece New Zealand Argentina
Austria Hungary Norway Brazil
Belgium Iceland Poland China (People's Republic of)
Canada Ireland Portugal Croatia
Chile Israel Slovak Republic Hong Kong, China
Colombia Italy Slovenia India
Costa Rica Japan Spain Indonesia
Czech Republic Korea Sweden Saudi Arabia
Denmark Latvia Switzerland South Africa
Estonia Lithuania Türkiye European Union
Finland Luxembourg United Kingdom  
France Mexico United States  
Germany Netherlands    

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