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Working Papers


  • 27-April-2021

    English

    Health Working Papers

    The OECD Health Working Papers series is designed to make available to a wider readership health studies prepared for use within the OECD.

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  • 20-October-2020

    English

    Health Inequalities

    Despite remarkable progress in health status and life expectancy in OECD countries over the past decades, there remain large inequalities not only across countries, but also across population groups within each country. These inequalities in health status are linked to many factors, including differences in exposure to risk factors to health and in access to health care.

  • 11-October-2019

    English

    Responsible innovation in neurotechnology enterprises

    Novel neurotechnology offers significant potential but raises a range of unique ethical, legal, and policy questions that business models will have to address. This paper is the result of analytical work on the opportunities and challenges of implementing responsibility frameworks into neurotechnology translation at major brain research initiatives and in the private sector.

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  • 24-May-2018

    English

    Gene editing for advanced therapies: Governance, policy and society

    Recent breakthroughs in gene editing techniques have ushered in a new era for gene editing and health innovation. This report is the result of an expert meeting to explore the core scientific, legal, regulatory and societal challenges facing the responsible development and use of gene editing in somatic cells for advanced therapies.

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  • 24-May-2018

    English

    Issues in neurotechnology governance

    Governments, funders and companies around the world are making unprecedented investments in brain research and the development of neurotechnologies. This report provides a summary of main discussion points emerging from an expert consultation that aimed to identify and classify cutting-edge neurotechnologies and the ethical, legal, social, economic and cultural issues that arise with them.

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  • 16-April-2018

    English

    Trend analysis of science, technology and innovation policies for biotechnology, nanotechnology and converging technologies (BNCTs)

    This paper aims to analyse policies pertaining to nanotechnology and biotechnology over time with regard to their directionality and technology specificity. The analysis provides some evidence that technology-push policies are favoured for young technology fields, while application-pull policies tend to be applied to more mature fields.

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  • 27-March-2018

    English

    Report on statistics and indicators of biotechnology and nanotechnology

    This paper provides a summary of trends and developments in biotechnology and nanotechnology over the last 20-25 years based on the longitudinal analyses of patents. It also introduces an experimental indicator which aims to visualise developments over time in each research area.

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  • 23-March-2018

    English

    Gene editing in an international context: Scientific, economic and social issues across sectors

    There is broad agreement that gene editing techniques go beyond incremental advances of past biotechnologies, but harnessing the potential will require meeting significant policy challenges in arenas of governance, ethics, and public engagement. This report summarises the discussions of a group of international experts and policymakers.

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  • 18-January-2018

    English

    Revised proposal for the revision of the statistical definitions of biotechnology and nanotechnology

    This document revises the OECD's statistical definition of biotechnology, which had last been reviewed in 2008, and proposes the adoption of a statistical definition of nanotechnology in the same format.

  • 25-April-2016

    English

    Pharmaceutical Expenditure and Policies: Past Trends and Future Challenges

    This paper looks at recent trends in pharmaceutical spending across OECD countries. It examines the drivers of recent spending trends, highlighting differences across therapeutic classes, and then looks at emerging challenges for policy makers in the management of pharmaceutical spending.

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