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Publications & Documents


  • 21-September-2023

    English

    Progress on implementing and using electronic health record systems - Developments in OECD countries as of 2021

    Electronic Health Records (eHR) represent a significant digital transformation in the healthcare sector. A 2021 OECD survey of 27 countries revealed a growing adoption of eHRs. However, system fragmentation remains a concern: only 15 countries have a nationally unified system. Twenty-four countries have adopted a minimum data set for standardized core health information. While patient access to eHRs has notably increased since 2016, obstacles such as provider resistance, technical barriers, and legal hurdles continue to exist. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the pivotal role of eHRs, particularly in vaccine tracking and post-market surveillance, highlighting the pressing need for international cooperation to maximize the benefits of eHRs in healthcare. Furthermore, as eHRs integrate with artificial intelligence, new governance challenges arise.
  • 18-September-2023

    English

    Health Update - The OECD Newsletter on Health

    This edition focuses on the release of "Embracing a One Health Framework to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance". Our report shows that without stronger One Health action – i.e. policy action encompassing people, animals, agri-food systems and the environment – AMR rates are forecasted to increase in the next three decades across OECD and EU/EEA countries, with substantial costs for health systems and economies.

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  • 15-September-2023

    English

    Patient Safety

    Patient safety is a critical policy issue and remains an important challenge to all OECD health systems. Many adverse events leading to harm could have been prevented if appropriate safety protocols and clinical guidelines were followed.

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  • 14-September-2023

    English

    Health Policies

    The OECD Health Division analyses health systems' performance and studies policy options to address shortcomings in performance. Browse the list of current analytical projects within the Health Division.

  • 14-September-2023

    English

    Embracing a One Health Framework to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) – the ability of microbes to resist antimicrobials – remains an alarming global health threat. This is despite the efforts made by OECD and EU/EEA countries to curtail it. Unless additional effective interventions are scaled up quickly, AMR rates are forecasted to increase in the next three decades across OECD and EU/EEA countries, with costs exceeding the healthcare expenditure on the COVID-19 pandemic. Using microsimulation and machine-learning techniques, this report analyses critical policy levers to inform the next generation of AMR initiatives. It shows that tackling the detrimental health and economic impact of AMR requires embracing a One Health framework – a collaborative, trans-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approach that promotes close co-operation and collaboration across human health, animal health, agrifood systems and the environment. This report identifies 11 One Health 'best buys' that, if implemented systematically, would improve population health, reduce health expenditure and generate positive returns for the economy.
  • 7-September-2023

    English

    Main Findings from the 2022 OECD Risks that Matter Survey

    Prices of essentials like energy and food have increased dramatically in OECD countries, adding uncertainty to household finances despite a persistently strong labour market post COVID-19. The latest edition of the OECD Risks that Matter (RTM) survey confirms that costs of living are at the top of people’s minds even in the world’s wealthiest countries: around nine in ten respondents, on average, report feeling concerned about inflation. Drawing on a representative sample of 27 000 respondents across 27 OECD countries, RTM illustrates respondents’ perceived economic risks, levels of satisfaction with current social policies, and preferences for future government action on social protection. People are calling on governments to help with the cost-of-living crisis, to spend more on health post COVID-19, and to reinforce support for older people, including in long-term care. Based on a comprehensive cross-national survey of perceptions of social protection, this report offers lessons for the functioning of social programmes as countries emerge from COVID-19, manage the cost-of-living crisis, and plan for future challenges.
  • 24-August-2023

    English

    Addressing the challenges of access to medicines

    Exploring further policy options suggested in the report Pharmaceutical Innovation and access to medicines, the OECD has undertaken, with financial support from the European Commission, several projects to further identify avenues to increase pharmaceutical expenditure efficiency and better prepare to changes in the market.

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  • 9-August-2023

    English

    Developing a set of indicators to monitor the performance of the pharmaceutical industry

    The 2018 OECD report Pharmaceutical Innovation and Access to Medicines noted that public debates about pharmaceutical policy are often marked by a lack of authoritative and commonly accepted information supporting the arguments of the stakeholders involved. A set of agreed indicators would facilitate better informed, more fact-based pharmaceutical policy debates to benefit all stakeholders, including the general public, policy makers, and the industry itself, and could help restore and strengthen trust among them. As part of its broader work agenda on 'Increasing the transparency of pharmaceutical markets to inform policies', the OECD undertook a comprehensive analysis to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a set of core indicators. The selection of indicators was guided by the principle that health policy aims to improve population health, and that access to effective medicines produced by a viable industry is essential to achieving that objective. To help policy makers understand how financial resources in the pharmaceutical industry contribute to the research and development of effective products in areas of need, indicators should cover three domains: inputs, including financial flows into the industry; activity, including financial performance and R&D expenditure and activity; and outputs, capturing product outflows and benefit to health systems. This paper presents the key findings on the feasibility of populating indicators to address the input and activity domains within this framework.
  • 28-July-2023

    English

    Improving Long-Term Care in Croatia

    EU Funded Note The demand for help with daily activities – so-called long-term care – is set to increase in Croatia. The population is ageing at a faster rate than the EU average, and by 2050, about one-third of the population is projected to be aged 65 years and over. In addition, with one of the highest poverty rates among older people in EU countries, at 30%, most older people cannot afford long-term care without public support. However, the long-term care system is both fragmented, with multiple benefits and services across different providers, and underfunded with public expenditure among the lowest across EU countries. As a result, long-term care remains unaffordable for most people even after receiving public support, leading to gaps in access, inequities, and a strong reliance on relatives to provide the bulk of long-term care. This report suggests avenues to improve access and equity of long-term care and proposes policy recommendations to enhance the support for family carers.
  • 18-July-2023

    English

    SIGI 2023 Global Report - Gender Equality in Times of Crisis

    What are the root causes of gender inequality? Building on the fifth edition of the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI), the SIGI 2023 Global Report provides a global outlook of discriminatory social institutions, the fundamental causes of gender inequality. It reveals how formal and informal laws, social norms and practices limit women’s and girls’ rights and opportunities in all aspects of their lives. Globally, 40% of them continue to live in countries where gender-based discrimination is assessed as high or very high. The report stresses how discriminatory social institutions curtail women’s and adolescents’ fundamental access to sexual and reproductive health and rights. It also sheds light on the gendered impacts of climate change and underlines how women can play a pivotal role in climate change mitigation and adaptation. To accelerate efforts aimed at achieving SDG 5 and eliminating the underlying and structural factors that hamper women’s empowerment, the report offers concrete policy actions. It calls for a gender-transformative approach to leverage crises and challenges into windows of opportunity to establish women and men as agents of change.
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