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Publications & Documents


  • 7-November-2023

    English

    Digitalisation of health systems can significantly improve performance and outcomes

    Health systems in the OECD are under renewed financial pressure, owing to competing priorities for public funding, according to a new OECD report. The 2023 edition of OECD Health at a Glance estimates that healthcare spending in OECD countries corresponded to 9.2% of GDP in 2022, down from 9.7% in 2021. While this exceeds the 2019 levels, in 11 OECD countries, health spending as a share of GDP in 2022 was lower than in 2019.

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  • 7-November-2023

    English

    Health at a Glance 2023 - OECD Indicators

    Health at a Glance provides a comprehensive set of indicators on population health and health system performance across OECD members and key emerging economies. These cover health status, risk factors for health, access to and quality of healthcare, and health system resources. Analysis draws from the latest comparable official national statistics and other sources. Alongside indicator-by-indicator analysis, an overview chapter summarises the comparative performance of countries and major trends. This edition also has a special focus on digital health, which measures the digital readiness of OECD countries’ health systems, and outlines what countries need to do accelerate the digital health transformation.
  • 31-October-2023

    English, PDF, 515kb

    Towards person-centered integrated care in Italy - Flyer (in Italian)

    Find out more about the project “Towards person-centered integrated care in Italy”, implemented by the OECD Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs (ELS) and the OECD Trento Centre for Local Development, in cooperation with the Directorate-General for Structural Reform Support of the European Commission.

  • 31-October-2023

    English

    Understanding international measures of health spending - Age-adjusting expenditure on health

    Assessing health system performance over time or across countries often means comparing populations with very different characteristics, including age structure. The share of the population aged 65 years and over ranges from less than 1 in 10 in some of the Latin American countries of the OECD to almost 3 in 10 in Japan. At the same time, populations are aging rapidly - on average across the OECD, there are 20% more people over 65 since 2015. Since risk of illness and ill-health generally increases with age, a population with an older demographic structure can expect higher mortality rates, greater incidence and prevalence of certain diseases, and thus higher demands for healthcare and, by consequence, higher spending on health. This working paper argues that the level of health spending depends not only on the size of the population (among other factors), but also on the demographic structure of the population. The paper reviews the international literature on age-adjusting health spending, and examines three methods of age-adjustment to report and compare health expenditure data between OECD countries and over time.
  • 18-October-2023

    English

    Paying providers for healthcare

    How health providers are paid is one of the key policy levers that countries have to drive health system performance. The 2012 HSC Survey analyses the payment modes currently in use in OECD countries to remunerate primary care, outpatient specialist care and inpatient care, the price regulations for health services and identifies new innovative modes of payments in more detail.

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  • 17-October-2023

    English

    How to Make Societies Thrive? Coordinating Approaches to Promote Well-being and Mental Health

    Good mental health is a vital part of people’s well-being. This report uses the OECD Well-being Framework to systematically review how people’s economic, social, relational, civic and environmental experiences shape and are, in turn, shaped by their mental health. Based on this evidence, examples of co-benefits, or policy interventions that can jointly improve both mental health and other well-being outcomes, are identified for a range of government departments. Implementing and sustaining such co-benefits requires resources, incentives and working arrangements that enable all relevant stakeholders to contribute to tackling the upstream determinants of mental health. Selected mental health initiatives across OECD countries are reviewed to illustrate how policy makers have been realigning action across government agencies; redesigning policy formulation to address the joint factors influencing mental health; refocusing efforts towards the promotion of positive mental health; and reconnecting with societal stakeholders beyond government, including those with lived experience, youth, civil society and research institutions. How to Make Societies Thrive? Coordinating Approaches to Promote Well-being and Mental Health is the second of two reports as part of a broader OECD project on mental health and well-being.
  • 16-October-2023

    English

    Purchasing for Quality Chronic Care - Summary Report

    Countries are seeking ways to strengthen their financing systems to promote access to quality health services under their commitments to Universal Health Coverage. Chronic conditions account for a large burden of premature mortality, and gaps exist in patient receipt of recommended quality care. The objective of this publication is to describe experiences in purchasing arrangements and payment methods and how they have been used to attain quality of care and health outcomes for chronic conditions. The publication builds on the existing body of empirical evidence and newly commissioned case studies from Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Germany, Indonesia, South Africa, and Spain to better understand the design of different purchasing arrangements that aim to promote quality for chronic disease care. We identify lessons learned in alignment of payment methods with service delivery models, key design issues in quality and payment, supporting purchasing policies, and monitoring and evaluation. Recognising that no single model is applicable to all settings, the publication aimed to share lessons learned and best practices and identify areas for future research, particularly in low- and middle-income settings.
  • 29-September-2023

    English

    Boosting Social Inclusion in Spain - Improving Pathways and Co-ordination of Services

    EU Funded Note Spain has a high share of the working age population at risk of poverty or social exclusion and a high incidence of child poverty. While Spain has introduced a minimum income at the national level, social inclusion policies are the responsibility of the regions. At present, the coverage of the minimum income remains low and there are many differences in the design and implementation of social inclusion policies across regions, especially as a number of regions do not develop social inclusion strategies. There is also a lack of a multidimensional approach to social inclusion. This report develops options for new inclusion models that address current challenges and help formulate a coherent inclusion strategy. It also sets out a blueprint for developing a monitoring and evaluation framework. The recommendations aim to increase the effectiveness of minimum income policies and strengthen the co-ordination between social services, employment, health and housing.
  • 21-September-2023

    English

    Health Information Infrastructure

    OECD Health Ministers welcomed the Recommendation of the OECD Council on Health Data Governance at their meeting in Paris on 17 January 2017. The Recommendation lays out the framework conditions to encourage greater availability and processing of health data within countries and across borders for health-related public policy objectives, while ensuring that risks to privacy and security are minimised and appropriately managed.

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  • 21-September-2023

    English

    Assessing the future fiscal sustainability of health spending in Ireland

    This working paper uses a new method to assess the fiscal sustainability of the Irish health system by considering the effects of population change and income growth on both government revenue and health spending over time. Spending on healthcare is comparatively high in Ireland, accounting for 8.4% of GNI in 2019. Health spending from public sources is projected to account for 24% of government revenues in 2040 (up from 20% in 2019). The fiscal balance is projected to slightly deteriorate in Ireland by 2040. Population change is projected to be a much greater driver of future health spending in Ireland over the next 20 years as compared to the OECD average. By coupling health spending projections with government revenue projections, our approach provides policymakers with a broader set of whole-of-government policies to consider when addressing financing shortfalls.
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