The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.
The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildings and equipment; and other resources, such as learning time.
This series offers timely policy advice to both governments and the education community. It includes both country reports and thematic studies.
This report examines the green growth potential and identifies best practices for policy and governance as well as ways to strengthen current practices. As the third largest city in Vietnam, Hai Phong’s economy is growing remarkably at an average rate of 8.7% (2015) in tandem with the growth of the Hai Phong Port. Economic growth and urbanisation, however, have posed serious environmental challenges, including: increased greenhouse gas emissions from industry and transport; rapid depletion of underground water sources; pollution of water sources from untreated commercial, medical, domestic and agricultural waste water; and inefficient waste management, where less than 10% of domestic waste is composted and recyclable materials are mixed with other waste and landfilled. Furthermore, Hai Phong ranks among the 20 cities most vulnerable to costal flooding due to climate change. Nevertheless, there is much untapped potential for green growth in Viet Nam and Hai Phong city. The ultimate goal is to build a stronger, more resilient and greener city.
This study examines the multi-level governance framework for public investment in Colombia. It provides a diagnosis of the strengths and challenges of the Colombian system and includes comparative data and a set of benchmarks to promote exchange of good practices and promote learning. It makes recommendations for how to further improve the system, make more effective use of existing resources and catch up to OECD countries in terms of infrastructure development . The review also suggests a set of indicators against which Colombia can measure its progress.
Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) is home to 8.6 million people and is Indonesia’s second-largest urban agglomeration. Rapid growth has created a number of challenges for the city, including traffic congestion, air pollution, municipal solid waste and water access and management. The BMA also faces several acute disaster risks primarily related to flooding and seismic activity. The area will need to address these challenges in order to continue sustainable development and to benefit from its environmental assets.
Urban green growth policies encourage economic development while reducing either its negative environmental or the consumption of natural resources and environmental assets, including water, energy and undeveloped land. This report, part of the OECD Urban Green Growth in Dynamic Asia project, explores policies, practices and governance systems to promote green growth in Bandung, Indonesia, and provides recommendations for enhancing Bandung’s green growth potential.
The economic performance of Peru in recent times has been impressive. There is now a transition underway as commodity prices fall, and the key challenge for Peru is how to improve productivity and maintain this growth trajectory. Peru is a territorially diverse country and addressing these challenges will require policies that are designed for the specific needs of different cities and regions. The importance of regional policies is particularly important for the case of Peru. Within the OECD only four countries have a larger land mass. The physical geography of the country is shaped by a thin coastal region, the Andes and the Amazon forest in the interior. These different areas are not well connected and have vastly different levels of service provision and infrastructure. The report sets out how regional policies can be improved to address these challenges. This includes ensuring the preconditions (such as revenues, capabilities and coordinating mechanisms) are in place for decentralisation to work. Lifting national productivity will largely depend on well-functioning cities. The report also includes recommendations for how Peru can develop a comprehensive approach to urban policy, including enhancing linkages with rural areas.
Regions and cities are where the effects of policies to promote economic growth and social inclusion are felt in day-to-day life. The OECD Regional Outlook 2016 examines the widening productivity gap across regions within countries, and the implications of these trends for the well-being of people living in different places. It discusses how structural policies, public investment and multi-level governance reforms can help boost productivity and address inclusion. Drawing on a survey of OECD countries, the Outlook highlights country practices in regional, urban, and rural development policy that guide public investment. The Special Focus Part II on rural areas looks at different types of rural area and their productivity performance trends, and suggests that countries move towards a “Rural Policy 3.0”. The Policy Forum on Regions and Cities: Implementing Global Agendas includes chapters by many leading global organisations on how regions and cities can be instrumental in achieving the targets of agreements such as the Paris Accord and the Sustainable Development Goals. Individual country profiles provide an overview of regional, urban and rural development policies as well as performance in terms of productivity and well-being among different regions.
This report maps the activities of ten leading Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) in Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Korea, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, South Africa and the United States. In particular, it looks at how these SAIs assess key stages of the policy cycle as well as resulting policies and programmes. SAIs have untapped potential to go beyond their traditional oversight role and contribute evidence for more informed policy-making. The report provides examples and case studies of SAIs’ activities that consider and support the integration of international good practices into policy and programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. It provides guidance for SAIs seeking to engage in oversight, insight and foresight, taking into account the SAI’s internal strategy as well as policy challenges and actors in the external environment.
Good risk communication is crucial for raising awareness among citizens and business about the risks their countries face. However, many countries have seen their risk communication tools fail in the past, leading to persitently low levels of risk awareness, especially in the absence of recent disasters. This OECD report surveys current trends in risk communication policies and practices across OECD and partner countries. It seeks to understand why risk communication tools have failed and what OECD countries can do to improve the effectiveness of their risk communication policies. Based on an OECD-wide survey, the report evaluates the degree to which countries have used risk communication tools to not only increase risk awareness, but to inform stakeholders about potential preparedness and prevention measures they can take to boost their resilience to future risks.
This new high profile report provides details of taxes paid on wages in twenty economies in Latin America and the Caribbean. It covers: personal income taxes and social security contributions paid by employees; social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by employers; cash benefits received by in-work families.
It illustrates how these taxes and benefits are calculated in each member country and examines how they impact on household incomes. The results also enable quantitative cross-country comparisons of labour cost levels and the overall tax and benefit position of single persons and families on different levels of earnings.
The publication shows the amounts of taxes and social security contributions levied and cash benefits received for eight different family types which vary by a combination of household composition and household type. It also presents the resulting average and marginal tax rates (i.e. the tax burden). Average tax rates show that part of gross wage earnings or total labour costs which is taken in tax and social security contributions (both before and after cash benefits). Marginal tax rates show the part of a small increase of gross earnings or total labour costs that is paid in these levies.
The data presented can be used in academic research and to analyse tax, social and economic policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.
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