International Programme for Action on Climate

By country

Impact & risks

Actions & opportunities

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Monitoring GHG emissions is key to measuring progress towards climate goals and GHG neutrality and to guide policy action. The focus is on emission trends and trajectories, complemented with emission structures and intensities. Related indicators reflect both direct pressures on climate and the results of policy action

GHG emission trends and trajectories

GHG emission structure and intensities

Impact & risks

Assessing climate impacts and risks is key to identifying adaptation needs. The focus is on climate-related impacts on environmental conditions, climate-related risks and vulnerabilities, and impacts on well-being. Finding key indicators that are easy to interpret is challenging as climate-related risks are specific to each country’s circumstances. Particular attention is given to weather-related impacts and extreme events.

Climate-related impacts on environmental conditions

Climate-related risks: occurrence of extreme weather events

Indicators under development

Number of events -

Number of deaths and missing persons -

Direct economic loss

Climate-related vulnerabilities and impacts on well-being

Indicators under development

Socio-economic inequality in the exposure to climate-related hazards

Actions & opportunities

Effective climate action is needed to progress towards net-zero GHG emissions and a resilient economy. The focus is on government measures having a direct bearing on emissions and for which indicators are readily available (climate-related pricing, taxation and innovation), complemented with changes in the energy mix. Indicators on other important aspects are being developed.

Changes in the energy mix

Climate-related pricing and taxation

Climate related innovation

Climate policy stringency

Indicator under development

Other policy responses and socio-economic opportunities

Indicators under development

Adaptation measures -

Climate budgets, expenditure, finance -

Labour market developments

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