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Reports


  • 6-December-2021

    English

    Resourcing Higher Education in the Flemish Community of Belgium

    The report on Resourcing Higher Education in the Flemish Community of Belgium is the first in a series of publications produced by the OECD's Resourcing Higher Education Project. This project aims to develop a shared knowledge base for OECD member and partner countries on effective policies for higher education resourcing through system-specific and comparative policy analysis. The review of resourcing in the Flemish Community of Belgium has a strong focus on the funding of operating costs, teaching and research in Flemish higher education institutions. It also analyses financial support for students, system-level frameworks governing human resources policy in higher education and key trends in higher education that will impact future higher education resourcing policy. Alongside analysis and comparison of Flemish resourcing policy approaches, it provides recommendations to support future refinement of policies.
  • 22-November-2021

    English

    Promoting Education Decision Makers' Use of Evidence in Flanders

    The introduction of standardised tests in Flemish schools aims to generate regular, reliable data for educators and policy makers. At an early stage of development, this report uses a research-based framework to engage stakeholders in thinking about the opportunities standardised tests could bring for their work. It builds on feedback from key stakeholders regarding their perceptions, hopes and concerns about the introduction of standardised tests. Feedback was gathered during a series of structured discussions and a stakeholder reflection seminar. The report identifies ways to strengthen the opportunity, capability and motivation of decision makers at all levels of the education system to use evidence effectively for their respective practice – including teaching and quality assurance. The report identifies lessons learnt to support the further development of standardised tests. The publication is part of OECD work on strategic education governance, which supports countries in identifying the best ways to achieve national objectives in a context of multi‑level governance structures and complex environments. The work identifies and promotes effective governance processes in the domains of accountability, capacity, knowledge governance, stakeholder involvement, strategic thinking and adopting a whole‑of‑system perspective. This publication will be of interest to policy makers, education leaders, the education research community and all those interested in education governance.
  • 18-October-2021

    English

    Schooling During a Pandemic - The Experience and Outcomes of Schoolchildren During the First Round of COVID-19 Lockdowns

    This report offers an initial overview of the available information regarding the circumstances, nature and outcomes of the education of schoolchildren during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns of March-April 2020. Its purpose is primarily descriptive: it presents information from high quality quantitative studies on the experience of learning during this period in order to ground the examination and discussion of these issues in empirical examples. Information is presented on three interrelated topics: the nature of the educational experience during the period of lockdowns and school closures; the home environment in which education took place for the vast majority of schoolchildren; the effects on the mental health and learning outcomes for children during this period. The data come primarily from 5 countries (France, Germany, Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States) with additional information on some aspects for 6 additional countries (Australia, Belgium (Flanders), Canada, Finland, Italy and the Netherlands). This report will be of interest to policy makers, academics, education stakeholders and anyone interested in a first international empirical analysis of the effects of the pandemic on the lives and education of schoolchildren.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    The return on human (STEM) capital in Belgium

    Whilst overall productivity growth is stalling, firms at the frontier are still able to capture the benefits of the newest technologies and business practices. This paper uses linked employer-employee data covering all Belgian firms over a period of almost 20 years and investigates the differences in human capital between highly productive firms and less productive firms. We find a clear positive correlation between the share of high-skilled and STEM workers in a firm's workforce and its productivity. We obtain elasticities of 0.20 to 0.70 for a firm's productivity as a function of the share of high-skilled workers. For STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) workers, of all skill levels, we find elasticities of 0.20 to 0.45. More importantly, the elasticity of STEM workers is increasing over time, whereas the elasticity of high-skilled workers is decreasing. This is possibly linked with the increasing number of tertiary education graduates and at the same time increased difficulties in filling STEM-related vacancies. Specifically, for high-skilled STEM workers in the manufacturing sector, the productivity gain can be as much as 4 times higher than the gain from hiring additional high-skilled non-STEM workers. To ensure that government efforts to increase the adoption of the latest technologies and business practices within firms lead to sustainable productivity gains, such actions should be accompanied by measures to increase the supply and mobility of human (STEM) capital. Without a proper supply of skills, firms will not be able to reap the full benefits of the digital revolution.
  • 15-June-2021

    English, PDF, 394kb

    OECD Skills Outlook 2021: How does Belgium compare?

    The Skills Outlook Country Profile details key indicators to assess the extent to which Belgium is able to provide strong foundations for lifelong learning; promote effective transitions into further education, training and the labour market and engage adults in learning. It also evaluates the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on adult learning and the labour market.

    Related Documents
  • 19-May-2021

    English, PDF, 194kb

    Preventing Harmful Alcohol Use: Key Findings for Belgium

    Belgium consumes 11.1 litres of pure alcohol per capita per year, roughly equivalent to 2.3 bottles of wine or 4.3 litres of beer per week per person aged 15 and over. In addition, in Belgium, some population groups are at higher risk than others.

  • 18-May-2021

    English

    Policy brief on e-learning and digital business diagnostic tools for entrepreneurs

    This policy brief discusses recent international policy experiences in developing e-learning and digital business diagnostic tools for entrepreneurs. E-learning tools can develop entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and competences among users and increase their confidence and success in business creation. Business diagnostic tools offer entrepreneurs ways to assess their business management practices against peer companies or good practices, building competence and diffusing good practice. This brief sets out considerations for the successful development and implementation of these tools. It presents eight international cases of tools and discusses the public policy lessons from these international experiences.
  • 11-May-2021

    English

    Teachers’ professional learning study: Diagnostic report for the Flemish Community of Belgium

    The Flemish Government asked the OECD to undertake a targeted diagnostic study of the Flemish system for teachers’ Continuing Professional Learning (CPL). Drawing on findings from interviews with Flemish stakeholders and schools, as well as document review, the study team identified strengths and weaknesses of the continuing professional learning system in the Flemish Community of Belgium, as well as opportunities and threats in going forward.
  • 3-May-2021

    English

    OECD Quarterly International Trade Statistics - Volume 2020 Issue 3

    This reliable and up-to-date source of OECD quarterly balance of payments and international merchandise trade statistics provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Balance of payments data are presented adjusted for seasonal variations. International trade data are broken down by country. The series shown cover data for the last ten quarters and two years available. This quarterly publication is divided into two parts: I. Balance of payments and international trade II. International merchandise trade by country.
  • 31-March-2021

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Belgium 2021

    Belgium has made progress in decoupling several environmental pressures from economic growth, in improving wastewater treatment and in expanding protected areas. Regions have achieved high levels of recovery and recycling, and have pioneered circular economy policies. However, further efforts are needed to progress towards carbon neutrality, reduce air and water pollution, reverse biodiversity loss and consolidate results of circular economy initiatives. Strengthening co‑ordination between the federal government and the regions, and among the regions, as well as enhancing policy coherence will be key factors of progress. As the COVID-19 emergency passes, recovery efforts should focus on putting the country back on track to meet the Sustainable Development Goals. Investing in low-carbon and natural infrastructure, promoting circular economy, strengthening carbon prices and phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies should be priorities. This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Belgium. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on biodiversity and waste, materials management and the circular economy.
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