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  • 26-April-2024

    English

    Tax Challenges Arising from the Digitalisation of the Economy – Consolidated Commentary to the Global Anti-Base Erosion Model Rules (2023) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS

    A key part of the OECD/G20 BEPS Project is addressing the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy. In October 2021, over 135 jurisdictions joined a ground-breaking plan to update key elements of the international tax system which is no longer fit for purpose in a globalised and digitalised economy. The Global Anti-Base Erosion (GloBE) Rules are a key component of this plan and ensure large multinational enterprise pay a minimum level of tax on the income arising in each of the jurisdictions where they operate. More specifically, the GloBE Rules provide for a co-ordinated system of taxation that imposes a top-up tax on profits arising in a jurisdiction whenever the effective tax rate, determined on a jurisdictional basis, is below the minimum rate. The Commentary to the GloBE Rules was originally released by the Inclusive Framework in March 2022. The Commentary explains the intended outcomes under the GloBE Rules, clarifies the meaning of certain terms and illustrates the application of the rules to certain fact patterns. This Consolidated Commentary incorporates Agreed Administrative Guidance that has been released by the Inclusive Framework since March 2022 up until December 2023. It provides tax administrations and taxpayers with guidance on the interpretation and application of the GloBE Rules in order to promote a consistent and common interpretation and application of those that will facilitate coordinated outcomes for both tax administrations and MNE Groups.
  • 25-April-2024

    English

    Taxing Wages 2024 - Tax and Gender through the Lens of the Second Earner

    This annual publication provides details of taxes paid on wages in OECD countries. This year’s edition focuses on fiscal incentives for second earners in the OECD and how tax policy might contribute to gender gaps in labour market outcomes. For the year 2023, the report also examines personal income taxes and social security contributions paid by employees, social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by employers, and cash benefits received by workers. It illustrates how these taxes and benefits are calculated in each member country and examines how they impact household incomes. The results also enable quantitative cross-country comparisons of labour cost levels and the overall tax and benefit position of single persons and families on different levels of earnings. The publication shows average and marginal effective tax rates on labour costs for eight different household types, which vary by income level and household composition (single persons, single parents, one or two earner couples with or without children). The average tax rates measure the part of gross wage earnings or labour costs taken in tax and social security contributions, both before and after cash benefits, and the marginal tax rates the part of a small increase of gross earnings or labour costs that is paid in these levies.
  • 28-March-2024

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Bulgaria 2024 (Second Round) - Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request

    This peer review report analyses the practical implementation of the standard of transparency and exchange of information on request in Bulgaria, as part of the second round of reviews conducted by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes since 2016.
  • 28-March-2024

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Kenya 2024 (Second Round, Combined Review) - Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request

    This peer review report analyses the practical implementation of the standard of transparency and exchange of information on request in Kenya, as part of the second round of reviews conducted by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes since 2016.
  • 28-March-2024

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Egypt 2024 (Second Round) - Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request

    This peer review report analyses the practical implementation of the standard of transparency and exchange of information on request in Egypt, as part of the second round of reviews conducted by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes since 2016.
  • 28-March-2024

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Cameroon 2024 (Second Round) - Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request

    This peer review report analyses the practical implementation of the standard of transparency and exchange of information on request in Cameroon, as part of the second round of reviews conducted by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes since 2016.
  • 28-March-2024

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Malta 2024 (Second Round, Supplementary Report) - Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request

    This supplementary peer review report analyses the practical implementation of the standard of transparency and exchange of information on request in Malta, as part of the second round of reviews conducted by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes since 2016.
  • 28-March-2024

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Armenia 2024 (Second Round, Phase 1) - Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request

    This peer review report analyses the implementation of the standard of transparency and exchange of information on request in Armenia, as part of the second round of reviews conducted by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes since 2016. Due to Armenia's limited practical experience of exchange of information on request, and in accordance with the methodology for peer reviews and non-member reviews, the report only assesses the jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework. The assessment of the practical implementation of this framework will be subject to a future Phase 2 review.
  • 28-March-2024

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Romania 2024 (Second Round) - Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request

    This peer review report analyses the practical implementation of the standard of transparency and exchange of information on request in Romania, as part of the second round of reviews conducted by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes since 2016.
  • 28-March-2024

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Georgia 2024 (Second Round) - Peer Review Report on the Exchange of Information on Request

    This peer review report analyses the practical implementation of the standard of transparency and exchange of information on request in Georgia, as part of the second round of reviews conducted by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes since 2016.
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