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  • 5-July-2021

    English

    Going Digital Toolkit notes

    These notes cover a range of policy and measurement challenges in the digital age. They identify key aspects to consider and provide innovative approaches to addressing challenges.

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  • 28-June-2021

    English

    Workshop on access to research data from public funding: The case of marine data

    This webinar on 28 June aims to reflect on the growing importance of marine data for society and solutions to make the provision of public marine research data more sustainable. discussions will be structured around sustainability issues for data infrastructure (particularly funding aspects) and the importance of International co-operation for access to research data.

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  • 28-June-2021

    English

    Targeting R&D intensity in Finnish innovation policy

    Finland has been setting research and development (R&D) intensity targets for almost 50 years. This paper explores the Finnish national policy experience in fostering public and private investments in R&D. Three key insights are the following: a) a systemic and integrated policy approach needs an impactful co-ordination and governance mechanism; b) a balanced innovation system with well-working joint public-private partnership efforts and mechanisms will do better in absorbing shocks; c) a key strategy to absorb shocks to the economy and society is to invest in long-term capabilities. This study also provides an overview of the factors influencing the level of R&D intensity. The current 4% target to be reached by 2030 was set in 2019 but thus far relatively few policy actions have been introduced to operationalise it. With these dynamics and uncertainty, it remains to be seen if the target will be reached by 2030.
  • 28-June-2021

    English

    Measuring the AI content of government-funded R&D projects - A proof of concept for the OECD Fundstat initiative

    This report presents the results of a proof of concept for a new analytical infrastructure ('Fundstat') for analysing government funding of R&D at the project level, exploiting the wealth of text-based information about funded projects. Reflecting the growth in popularity of artificial intelligence (AI) and the OECD Council Recommendation on AI’s emphasis on R&D investment, the report focuses on analysing government investments into AI-related R&D. Using text mining tools, it documents the creation of a list of key terms used to identify AI-related R&D projects contained in 13 funding databases from eight OECD countries and the EU, provides estimates for the total number and volume of government R&D funding, and characterises their AI funding portfolio. The methods and findings developed in this study also serve as a prototype for a new distributed mechanism capable of measuring and analysing government R&D support across key OECD priority areas and topics.
  • 28-June-2021

    English

    Tools for trustworthy AI - A framework to compare implementation tools for trustworthy AI systems

    As artificial intelligence (AI) advances across economies and societies, stakeholder communities are actively exploring how best to encourage the design, development, deployment and use of AI that is human-centred and trustworthy. This report presents a framework for comparing tools and practices to implement trustworthy AI systems as set out in the OECD AI Principles. The framework aims to help collect, structure and share information, knowledge and lessons learned to date on tools, practices and approaches for implementing trustworthy AI. As such, it provides a way to compare tools in different use contexts. The framework will serve as the basis for the development of an interactive, publicly available database on the OECD.AI Policy Observatory. This report informs ongoing OECD work towards helping policy makers and other stakeholders implement the OECD AI Principles in practice.
  • 23-June-2021

    English

    How will COVID-19 reshape science, technology and innovation?

    Factors shaping the future of STI include the unequal effects of the pandemic on R&D across sectors, the accelerated adoption of digital tools and techniques, and changes in the openness, inclusiveness and agility of research and innovation ecosystems.

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  • 18-June-2021

    English

    State of implementation of the OECD AI Principles - Insights from national AI policies

    This is the first report on the state of implementation of the policy recommendations to governments contained in the OECD Principles on Artificial Intelligence adopted in May 2019. This report presents a conceptual framework, provides findings, identifies good practices, and examines emerging trends in AI policy, particularly on how countries are implementing the five recommendations to policy makers contained in the OECD AI Principles. The report builds both on the expert input provided at meetings of the OECD.AI Network of Experts working group on national AI policies that took place online from February 2020 to April 2021 and on the EC-OECD database of national AI strategies and policies. As policy makers and AI actors around the world move from principles to implementation, this report aims to inform the implementation of the OECD AI Principles. This report is also a contribution to the OECD AI Policy Observatory.
  • 17-June-2021

    English

    Implementation toolkit on legislative actions for consumer protection enforcement co-operation

    Countries have made significant efforts in recent years to develop domestic, regional and international frameworks for consumer protection enforcement co-operation across borders. However, recent work by the OECD Committee on Consumer Policy has shown that challenges remain in many countries, in particular a lack of legal authority to fully engage in enforcement co-operation. This toolkit acts a practical resource for consumer protection enforcement agencies that do not currently have the domestic legal authority needed for enforcement co-operation to make the case for obtaining relevant legislative tools. It also provides guidance to ensure related legislative reforms are fit for purpose. The toolkit sets out a range of legislative actions countries may take to improve cross-border enforcement co-operation, covering investigatory powers, enforcement outcomes and co-operation practices. Its annex addresses operational and legal issues, and provides concrete examples of cases and legislation from a broad range of both OECD countries and partner economies.
  • 16-June-2021

    English, PDF, 4,829kb

    Communiqué on product safety pledges

    A number of consumer product safety authorities have established product safety pledges with online marketplaces to better protect consumers from the risk of unsafe products. This document aims to encourage the development of further such pledges at domestic and regional levels, and to identify the key commitments for inclusion.

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  • 16-June-2021

    English

    Knowledge co-creation in the 21st century - A cross-country experience-based policy report

    The importance of knowledge co-creation – the joint production of innovation between industry, research and possibly other stakeholders, such as civil society – has been increasingly acknowledged. This paper builds on 13 cross-country case studies and co-creation experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic to characterise the diversity of knowledge co-creation initiatives and identify lessons for policy. The paper identifies a strong rationale for policy to support knowledge co-creation because the benefits of successful co-creation initiatives outweigh the initial co-ordination costs. Moreover, knowledge co-creation initiatives can contribute to democratising innovation. Successful initiatives engage all stakeholders and have effective governance and management structures. They also have clearly defined ownership and use rights of the collaborations’ outcomes and benefit from favourable conditions to operate, including temporary staff mobility and institutional set-ups that facilitate collaboration and effective communication among participants.
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