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  • 22-September-2021

    English

    The human capital behind AI - Jobs and skills demand from online job postings

    Building on recent OECD work, this paper analyses the skills sets ('skills bundles') demanded in artificial intelligence (AI)-related online job postings. The analysis uses Burning Glass Technologies’ data for the United States and the United Kingdom and finds that skills related to the open source programming software Python and to machine learning represent 'must-haves' for working with AI. Employers additionally value specialised skills related to robotics, AI development and applying AI. A comparison of the periods 2013-15 and 2017-19 shows that the latter two have become more interrelated over time, with 'neural network' skills connecting both groups. Network analysis relating AI skills to general skills highlights the growing role of socio-emotional skills; and of skill bundles related to programming, management of big data and data analysis. Key results hold for both countries and time periods, though differences emerge across occupations and industries.
  • 22-September-2021

    English

    Intangibles and industry concentration - Supersize me

    This paper presents new evidence on the growing scale of big businesses in the United States, Japan, and Europe. It finds broad evidence of rising industry concentration across the majority of countries and sectors over the period 2002 to 2014. Rising concentration is strongly associated with intensive investment in intangibles, particularly innovative assets, software, and data. This relationship appears to be stronger in more globalised and digital-intensive industries. The results are consistent with intangibles disproportionately benefiting large firms and enabling them to scale up and increase market shares. We find nuanced implications of these new business models for competition – rising markups and reduced churning amongst the top firms, but falling industry prices.
  • 21-September-2021

    English

    Teleworking in the COVID-19 pandemic: Trends and prospects

    This brief presents key information on how teleworking evolved during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020), with a particular focus on timely and high frequency data published by national statistical organisations, as well as evidence on how telework may evolve in the future.

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  • 20-September-2021

    English, PDF, 6,539kb

    Space economy for people, planet and prosperity

    Space technologies will play a role in furthering social well-being and sustainable growth in the post-COVID-19 recovery, but a number of challenges persist. This OECD paper provides input for discussions at the September 2021 G20 Space Economy Leaders' meeting held under the auspices of the Italian presidency.

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  • 17-September-2021

    English

    The Analytical AMNE database - Multinational enterprises and global value chains

    Deeper insights into the role and activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) are needed. The Analytical AMNE database includes a full matrix of the output of foreign affiliates in 43 countries plus the rest of the world, as well as similar matrices for value-added, exports and imports over the period 2000-2014. Split inter-country input-output tables were also created.

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  • 15-September-2021

    English

    Shipbuilding policy and market developments in selected economies

    This report presents shipbuilding market developments of nine of the largest shipbuilding economies which are not members of the OECD Council Working Party on Shipbuilding (WP6). Over the last 20 years, the share of these economies in global ship deliveries has been increasingly driven by the rapid growth of Chinese ship completions and reached 43.7% of global completions in 2020. The report also provides an overview of support measures taken by selected WP6 non-members. Using public sources, over the period March 2020 to March 2021, these economies appeared to employ a total of 21 support measures, with the most frequently used measure being protection of the domestic market. Of these economies, the People’s Republic of China used the largest number of support measures, followed by the United States.
  • 15-September-2021

    English

    Industrial Policy for the Sustainable Development Goals - Increasing the Private Sector’s Contribution

    How can governments support the private sector’s contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? This book investigates the contribution of firms to the SDGs, particularly through their core business, taking into account inter-sectoral linkages and global value chains, using novel techniques and data sources. Despite the fact that the private sector has the potential to contribute to a wide range of SDGs, and that many firms find it economically viable to develop sustainable products and services, firms still face significant hurdles in their sustainability transition. Based on this new evidence, this book provides some recommendations on the design of industrial policies to enhance the contribution of businesses to the SDGs.
  • 14-September-2021

    English

    Going Digital Toolkit notes

    These notes cover a range of policy and measurement challenges in the digital age. They identify key aspects to consider and provide innovative approaches to addressing challenges.

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  • 9-September-2021

    English

    Multinational enterprises and intangible capital

    This paper provides new evidence on the role of intangible capital in global value chains (GVCs) by focusing on the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and their foreign affiliates in value capture through intangible assets. Industry-level data suggest that foreign affiliates of MNEs generate more income through intangible capital than domestic-owned firms. Intangible returns from foreign affiliates are found both in the host economy and in foreign-owned firms in other countries participating in the GVC. Some heterogeneity is observed across GVCs with returns to intangible capital of foreign-owned firms concentrated in key manufacturing (chemicals including pharmaceuticals, food products, ICT and electronics, and motor vehicles) and services GVCs (finance and insurance, other business services, wholesale and retail, and telecoms). Five case studies (Adidas, AstraZeneca, Rocket Internet, Starbucks and Tata Consultancy Services) complement the analysis by looking at the role of intangible capital in the GVC of specific MNEs.
  • 31-August-2021

    English

    Promoting research and innovation in the Slovak Republic through an effective use of European funds

    This policy paper analyses current practices related to the implementation of European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) in the Slovak Republic, in particular, the Operational Programme Research and Innovation (R&I). The Slovak Republic benefits from one of the largest shares of European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF). However, the country ranks amongst the EU member states with the lowest absorption of R&I ESIF. In 2017, administrative inefficiencies and irregularities resulted in further decommitments by the European Commission. This paper identifies bottlenecks in the ESIF projects’ implementation across the entire project life cycle, from the preparation of calls to the execution of selected projects. It offers the Slovak Republic tailored policy recommendations to support the effective implementation of European funds for research and innovation and avoid further decommissioning. To ensure lasting changes, this policy paper proposes an action plan where all relevant stakeholders would contribute to effectively implementing transformational reforms.
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