Latest Documents

  • 2-April-2021


    Blueprint for improved measurement of the international ocean economy - An exploration of satellite accounting for ocean economic activity

    Sustainably managing the ocean requires reliable measures of the ocean’s contributions to society and the effects that human activities have on the marine environment. This paper informs current international discussions on the measurement of ocean economic activities. It summarises the extent to which the ocean is crucial to society, outlines national approaches to measuring ocean economies, establishes an OECD definition of ocean economic activities for statistical purposes, and introduces a plan to improve international ocean economy statistics through the pragmatic development of satellite accounts. By measuring the full range of ocean economic activities, this framework will improve evidence on ocean sustainability and lay the foundations for ocean accounts that include economic-environmental linkages.
  • 10-February-2021


    Science, technology and innovation in the time of COVID-19

    Science, technology and innovation (STI) have played a key role in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic and the unprecedented socio-economic crisis it has triggered. This paper explores how the pandemic affected STI in 2020, including how STI was mobilised to provide vaccines, treatments and innovative (often digital) solutions to address 'social distancing'. The paper also reviews the quick and agile STI policy responses implemented across countries to stimulate research and innovation activities to find solutions to the pandemic. Moreover, the paper covers STI policies that targeted universities, research centres, innovative businesses and entrepreneurs most affected by the crisis. It also raises key debates on the effectiveness of such policies. Follow-up work will leverage more and better data to improve this early assessment of the impacts of the crisis and STI policy responses.
  • 5-February-2021


    The design and implementation of mission-oriented innovation policies - A new systemic policy approach to address societal challenges

    This paper analyses ‘mission-oriented innovation policies’ (MOIPs), a new type of systemic intervention that a growing number of countries has implemented in order to tackle mounting societal challenges. These policies aim to alleviate some of the most prevalent weaknesses within many national systems of innovation, notably the lack of holistic strategic orientation and policy co-ordination, and fragmented policy mixes. This paper leverages a dedicated analytical framework to systematically explore the challenges and opportunities that these policies present at initiative and country levels. In doing so, it provides a better understanding of the different ways in which governments design, fund and coordinate MOIPs, and contributes to broadening the range of options available to either improve or initiate this policy approach. This paper complements the MOIP Online Toolkit (, the OECD knowledge platform on MOIPs.
  • 20-January-2021


    Recommendation of the OECD Council concerning Access to Research Data from Public Funding

    This legal instrument has been updated to address new technologies and policy developments. It provides policy guidance in seven areas with an expanded scope to cover not only research data, but also related metadata as well as bespoke algorithms, workflows, models, and software (including code), which are essential for their interpretation.

  • 14-December-2020


    Collaborative platforms for innovation in advanced materials

    Advanced materials hold significant potential to create better products and production processes. Yet realising their promise remains challenging: historically it has taken 15 to 20 years from discovery to deployment of new materials in products. Consequently, governments have been creating shared digital and physical infrastructures – 'collaborative platforms' – to pool and manage global data, drive the development of nascent industries, and create hubs of interdisciplinary research, development and training. Based on evidence from 12 case studies, this report characterises governance mechanisms of collaborative platforms for advanced materials such as terms of funding, access, and IP policy and explores how they can create different kinds of value. Technology convergence, the engagement of society and digitalisation are identified as key trends. The study describes conditions under which collaborative platforms can align and power value chains, foster standards, catalyse innovation ecosystems and build education, skills and social capital.
  • 9-December-2020


    What role for science, technology and innovation in building resilience?

    The COVID-19 crisis has exposed the fragility of interconnected economies, leading to calls for increased “resilience” in the recovery phase. This virtual workshop on 9 December 2020 considered the role of science, technology and innovation systems in supporting resilience to future systemic shocks.

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  • 7-October-2020

    English, PDF, 5,889kb

    Measuring the economic impact of the space sector: Key indicators and options to improve data

    G20 economies account for the bulk of government funding of space activities and are leaders in space research and innovation. This OECD background note for the G20 Space Economy Leaders' Space20 meeting presents indicators and options on how to improve measurement of the space economy.

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  • 10-August-2020


    Greater harmonisation of clinical trial regulations would help the fight against COVID-19

    This brief discusses the obstacles in developing international clinical trials that are critical to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. It provides information on relevant adaptations of regulatory requirements for clinical trials intended to accelerate processes, and highlights the need to further harmonise these regulations between national regulatory authorities.

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  • 6-August-2020


    The impacts of COVID-19 on the space industry

    The recent growth in the space sector has generated unprecedented levels of entrepreneurship and start-up activity, but the COVID-19 crisis could reverse this positive trend. Space agencies and other public administrations therefore need to fully consider vulnerable smaller actors in their overall crisis responses.

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  • 3-August-2020


    Optimising the operation and use of national research infrastructures

    This report is the outcome of a joint activity between Science Europe and the OECD, and presents a generic framework for improving the use and operation of national research infrastructures (RIs), which play a key role in enabling and developing research in all scientific domains and represent an increasingly large share of research investment. It includes two guiding models: one for portfolio management and one for user-base optimisation. These identify the key principles of an effective national RI portfolio management system and the factors that RI managers should consider with regards to optimising the user base of national RIs. Both guiding models account for the diversity of national systems and RI operation approaches. The report also contains a series of more generic policy recommendations and suggested actions for RI portfolio managers and RI managers.
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