• 29-September-2023


    Boosting Social Inclusion in Spain - Improving Pathways and Co-ordination of Services

    EU Funded Note Spain has a high share of the working age population at risk of poverty or social exclusion and a high incidence of child poverty. While Spain has introduced a minimum income at the national level, social inclusion policies are the responsibility of the regions. At present, the coverage of the minimum income remains low and there are many differences in the design and implementation of social inclusion policies across regions, especially as a number of regions do not develop social inclusion strategies. There is also a lack of a multidimensional approach to social inclusion. This report develops options for new inclusion models that address current challenges and help formulate a coherent inclusion strategy. It also sets out a blueprint for developing a monitoring and evaluation framework. The recommendations aim to increase the effectiveness of minimum income policies and strengthen the co-ordination between social services, employment, health and housing.
  • 18-September-2023


    Minimum wages in a dual labour market - Evidence from the 2019 minimum-wage hike in Spain

    This paper provides an assessment of the 2019 minimum-wage hike in Spain, which increased the minimum wage by 22% and directly concerned 7% of dependent employees. The assessment is based on an individual-level analysis that follows the outcomes of workers that were employed in the year before the reform over time. Among directly affected workers, the hike in the minimum wage increased full-time equivalent monthly earnings by on average 5.8% and reduced employment by -0.6%. The wage effects are stronger for workers on open-ended contracts, while the employment effects are stronger for workers on fixed-term contracts.
  • 14-September-2023

    Spanish, PDF, 229kb

    Adopción del marco "Una sola salud" para luchar contra la resistencia a los antimicrobianos en España

    La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM) - la capacidad de los microbios para resistir a los agentes antimicrobianos - sigue siendo una alarmante amenaza para la salud mundial que pone en peligro la eficacia de muchos avances del siglo XX en materia de salud pública. En los últimos años, España ha realizado importantes avances en la lucha contra la RAM. Sin embargo, es necesario seguir avanzando.

  • 14-September-2023

    English, PDF, 223kb

    Embracing a One Health Framework to Fight Antimicrobial Resistance in Spain

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) – the ability of microbes to resist antimicrobials - remains an alarming global health threat that jeopardises the effectiveness of many 20th century public health advances. In recent years, Spain made important strides in tackling AMR. Yet, more progress is needed.

  • 5-July-2023


    Rethinking Regional Attractiveness in the New Global Environment

    The Rethinking Regional Attractiveness in the New Global Environment report highlights lessons learned from multiple regional case studies from five EU countries (Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Sweden), additional work with Latin American and Caribbean regions, and a series of webinars and one-on-one dialogues on rethinking regional attractiveness. The OECD’s innovative multidimensional approach to assessing regional attractiveness considers global engagement beyond international connections and economic factors alone. The methodology considers more than 50 indicators to develop regional attractiveness profiles covering six domains of attractiveness: economic attraction, connectedness, visitor appeal, natural environment, resident well-being, and land-use and housing. The report helps regional and national policy makers to understand how individual regions fare in a new global environment that continues to deal with the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis, compounded by the consequences of Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine and existing megatrends – all of which produce asymmetric impacts within and between countries and regions – and identify the policy levers available to enhance their attractiveness to the international target groups of investors, talent, and visitors. It also considers the need to co-ordinate across levels of government, across policy fields, and with private stakeholders, and highlights good practices to implement regional attractiveness policies.
  • 28-June-2023


    Policies for the Future of Farming and Food in Spain

    Spain has a dynamic and competitive agro-food sector. However, higher productivity has not always reduced environmental pressures. The agricultural innovation and knowledge system could play a key role in addressing the environmental challenges and improving the sector’s resilience. Policies for the Future of Farming and Food in Spain undertakes a thorough examination of the Spanish agro-food sector. It applies the OECD Productivity, Sustainability and Resilience (PSR) analytical framework along with the latest data from the OECD Agri-Environmental Indicators to benchmark the country’s sustainable productivity performance and to identify the main challenges facing the sector. This report proposes a new policy approach, which puts innovation at the centre of a strategy to reconcile environmental performance and productivity growth. Its policy recommendations focus on actions to improve the agricultural knowledge and innovation system and make it more responsive to the most urgent environmental pressures. This requires strengthening the institutional and regulatory framework that supports agricultural innovation and creating incentives to tackle the impediments for a more sustainable and resilient agriculture.
  • 14-June-2023


    The demand for language skills in the European labour market - Evidence from online job vacancies

    This paper investigates the demand for language skills using data on online job vacancies in 27 European Union member countries and the United Kingdom in 2021. Evidence indicates that although Europe remains a linguistically diverse labour market, knowing English confers unique advantages in certain occupations. Across countries included in the analyses, a knowledge of English was explicitly required in 22% of all vacancies and English was the sixth most required skill overall. A knowledge of German, Spanish, French and Mandarin Chinese was explicitly demanded in between 1% and 2% of all vacancies. One in two positions advertised on line for managers or professionals required some knowledge of English, on average across European Union member countries and across OECD countries in the sample. This compares with only one in ten positions for skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and among elementary occupations.
  • 13-June-2023


    Proposal for an action plan to reduce early school leaving in Spain

    Early school leaving (ESL) can lead to mounting individual challenges and generate high economic costs to education systems and societies at large. Spain has made significant progress in reducing ESL in recent years; in 2022, the ESL rate was 13,9% - almost half the points of a decade earlier. However, noteworthy regional disparities remain, and Spain’s average ESL rate remains one of the highest among OECD and EU member countries. Informed by national and international research evidence and good practices, and by the expert contribution of key education stakeholders, this report identifies existing strengths and challenges to address ESL across Spain. It proposes five areas for action that each include a range of evidence-based and actionable recommendations for a coordinated approach to reducing ESL in all autonomous communities and in the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
  • 15-May-2023


    Global Trends in Government Innovation 2023

    In the face of what has increasingly been referred to as an ongoing 'permacrisis', governments must cope with and respond to emerging threats while already grappling with longstanding issues such as climate change, digital disruption and low levels of trust. In this context, understanding new approaches and spreading successful ideas has never been more important. To promote this, the OECD Observatory of Public Sector Innovation (OPSI) has analysed 1 084 innovative initiatives from 94 countries to derive and understand novel government practices. The report discusses four key trends: 1) new forms of accountability for a new era of government, 2) new approaches to care, 3) new methods for preserving identities and strengthening equity and 4) new ways of engaging citizens and residents. Ten case studies and dozens of supporting examples illustrate these trends.
  • 25-April-2023


    Taxing Wages: Key findings for Spain

    The tax wedge for the average single worker in Spain remained unchanged at 39.5% in 2021 and 2022. The OECD average tax wedge in 2022 was 34.6% (2021, 34.6%).

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