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  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Spain 2021 Energy Policy Review

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. Since the last IEA review in 2015, Spain has solved a long-standing issue of tariff deficits in its electricity and gas sectors and closed all of its coal mines, which has allowed it to place the energy transition at the forefront of its energy and climate change policies. The current Spanish framework for energy and climate is based on the 2050 objectives of national climate neutrality, 100% renewable energy in the electricity mix, and 97% renewable energy in the total energy mix. As such, it is centred on the massive development of renewable energy, energy efficiency, electrification and renewable hydrogen. Notwithstanding its considerable progress to date on decarbonising and increasing the share of renewables in the electricity sector, Spain’s total energy mix is still heavily dominated by fossil fuels. Notably, the transport, industry and buildings sectors all have considerable work ahead of them to meet the country’s targets for decarbonisation and higher shares of renewables. When all of Spain’s plans and strategies are implemented, a completely different energy sector will emerge in which fossil fuels are no longer dominant and end-user sectors are mostly electrified. Such a transformed energy landscape will come with new challenges and will provide new opportunities. In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help Spain effectively manage this transformation of its energy sector.
  • 7-July-2021

    English

    OECD Employment Outlook 2021: How does your country compare?

    In some countries, employers used job retention programmes to cut hours while allowing workers to keep their pay and jobs; there, it is likely that the full impact of the pandemic is yet to be felt. In other countries, there have been unprecedented increases in unemployment, but many workers will return to their jobs (or to new ones) as economies re-open and activity picks up.

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  • 6-July-2021

    English

    Enhancing digital diffusion for higher productivity in Spain

    The increased adoption of digital technologies has been transforming the Spanish economy. The COVID-19 crisis is expected to speed up this process. The new digital strategy, ‘Digital Spain 2025’, features a number of ambitious objectives in a timely manner. There is a need to promote digital diffusion across the country by developing communication infrastructure further, while addressing the digital divide across regions and ensuring digital security. Addressing key bottlenecks, such as people’s skills, through education policies at every level, would enable the use of digital technologies and boost productivity growth. This would help in particular laggard firms and low-skilled people, making the benefits of digitalisation shared by all. In parallel, R&D should be enhanced to lift the capacity of firms to adopt and use digital technologies effectively, resulting in improving their business models and products. Finally, business dynamism should be revitalised to encourage risk taking among firms, thus facilitating digital diffusion, while ensuring an efficient allocation of capital.
  • 15-June-2021

    English, PDF, 400kb

    OECD Skills Outlook 2021: How does Spain compare?

    The Skills Outlook Country Profile details key indicators to assess the extent to which Spain is able to provide strong foundations for lifelong learning; promote effective transitions into further education, training and the labour market and engage adults in learning. It also evaluates the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on adult learning and the labour market.

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  • 11-June-2021

    English

    Mining Regions and Cities Case of Andalusia, Spain

    Andalusia is the largest mining producer in Spain, the second-largest copper producer in the EU and a leader in marble and gypsum production. The region benefits from two distinct mining subsectors, each with a rich network of suppliers that are relevant for local development: the metallic mining sector (e.g. copper and zinc), which accounts for most of the regional mining production, and the non-metallic sector (ornamental rocks, aggregates and industrial minerals), which is highly dispersed across the territory. The regional mining value chain has the potential to leverage the increasing global and EU demand for sustainable raw materials and thus become a frontrunner in leading technologies and circular processes for environmentally sustainable mining. This study identifies how Andalusia can build on its strengths and address current and future challenges to improve regional productivity and well-being while accelerating the transition to a low-carbon economy and assisting EU climate goals.
  • 19-May-2021

    English, PDF, 206kb

    Prevención del consumo nocivo de alcohol - España

    España tiene uno de los niveles más altos de consumo de alcohol: 12,7 litros de alcohol puro per cápita al año, lo que equivale aproximadamente a 2,6 botellas de vino o 4,9 litros de cerveza a la semana por persona de 15 años o más. Además, en España, algunos grupos de población corren más riesgo que otros.

  • 19-May-2021

    English, PDF, 278kb

    Preventing Harmful Alcohol Use: Key Findings for Spain

    Spain has one of the highest levels of alcohol consumption – 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita per year, roughly equivalent to 2.6 bottles of wine or 4.9 litres of beer per week per person aged 15 and over. In addition, in Spain, some population groups are at higher risk than others.

  • 18-May-2021

    English

    The Circular Economy in Granada, Spain

    While the COVID-19 crisis has put many economic activities on hold, notably tourism, a pillar of Granada’s economy, it has also created a momentum towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns, in line with carbon neutrality goals. The pandemic also magnified the need for new urban paradigms while increasing awareness on the potential of the circular economy to transition to low carbon cities and regions, whilst also stimulating economic growth, creating jobs, and improving people’s lives and social well-being. This report summarises the findings of a two-year policy dialogue with the city of Granada in Spain, and provides recommendations and a vision to transition to a circular economy. It draws on Granada’s own experience with the transformation of a wastewater treatment plant into a bio factory in 2015, which contributed to increased water reuse and the production of new material from waste. The report argues that the city of Granada can play a role as a promoter, facilitator and enabler of the circular economy. This will require a collective and coordinated approach across all stakeholders and levels of government.
  • 30-March-2021

    English

    The spatial dimension of productivity in Italian co-operatives

    This report explores the spatial dimension of productivity in the co-operatives of Italy, a country where they make up a relatively large share of total national employment. Co-operatives play a countercyclical role in job creation during crises. In a post-pandemic world, they could make a major contribution to steering the economy towards inclusiveness and sustainability. Productivity growth ensures that co-operatives can achieve both economic and social goals in the future. This report applies a place-based approach to investigate the issue of productivity in co-operatives, given their many interdependencies with local communities. Novel evidence points to the local factors that are linked with the concentration and productivity of co-operatives across regions, sectors and firm size classes in Italy. A comparison with other Italian firms as well as with Spanish co-operatives and other Spanish firms serves to illustrate how productivity performance varies across space and firm types. This report constitutes an empirical test for the analytical approach developed by the OECD Spatial Productivity Lab.
  • 17-March-2021

    English

    Introducing individual savings accounts for severance pay in Spain - An ex-ante assessment of the distributional effects

    This report provides an ex ante assessment of the distributional effects of introducing portable severance pay accounts in Spain based on micro-simulations. In the current system, permanent workers who are dismissed from their job are entitled to 20 days of severance pay per year of service, which is relatively high by OECD standards. The report considers a reform that replaces the current severance payment system with individual saving accounts financed through periodic contributions by employers. The report focuses on two versions of the reform that keep constant respectively the total compensation in case of dismissal ('constant benefit') or the expected costs for firms of employing a permanent worker ('constant-cost'). Importantly, the analysis in the report does do not take account of the behavioural responses of firms and workers to the reform.
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