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Publications & Documents


  • 28-June-2021

    English

    Measuring the AI content of government-funded R&D projects - A proof of concept for the OECD Fundstat initiative

    This report presents the results of a proof of concept for a new analytical infrastructure ('Fundstat') for analysing government funding of R&D at the project level, exploiting the wealth of text-based information about funded projects. Reflecting the growth in popularity of artificial intelligence (AI) and the OECD Council Recommendation on AI’s emphasis on R&D investment, the report focuses on analysing government investments into AI-related R&D. Using text mining tools, it documents the creation of a list of key terms used to identify AI-related R&D projects contained in 13 funding databases from eight OECD countries and the EU, provides estimates for the total number and volume of government R&D funding, and characterises their AI funding portfolio. The methods and findings developed in this study also serve as a prototype for a new distributed mechanism capable of measuring and analysing government R&D support across key OECD priority areas and topics.
  • 28-June-2021

    English

    Tools for trustworthy AI - A framework to compare implementation tools for trustworthy AI systems

    As artificial intelligence (AI) advances across economies and societies, stakeholder communities are actively exploring how best to encourage the design, development, deployment and use of AI that is human-centred and trustworthy. This report presents a framework for comparing tools and practices to implement trustworthy AI systems as set out in the OECD AI Principles. The framework aims to help collect, structure and share information, knowledge and lessons learned to date on tools, practices and approaches for implementing trustworthy AI. As such, it provides a way to compare tools in different use contexts. The framework will serve as the basis for the development of an interactive, publicly available database on the OECD.AI Policy Observatory. This report informs ongoing OECD work towards helping policy makers and other stakeholders implement the OECD AI Principles in practice.
  • 23-June-2021

    English

    How will COVID-19 reshape science, technology and innovation?

    Factors shaping the future of STI include the unequal effects of the COVID-19 crisis on R&D across sectors, the accelerated adoption of digital tools and techniques, and changes in the openness, inclusiveness and agility of research and innovation ecosystems.

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  • 23-June-2021

    English

    How will COVID-19 reshape science, technology and innovation?

    Factors shaping the future of STI include the unequal effects of the pandemic on R&D across sectors, the accelerated adoption of digital tools and techniques, and changes in the openness, inclusiveness and agility of research and innovation ecosystems.

    Related Documents
  • 18-June-2021

    English

    State of implementation of the OECD AI Principles - Insights from national AI policies

    This is the first report on the state of implementation of the policy recommendations to governments contained in the OECD Principles on Artificial Intelligence adopted in May 2019. This report presents a conceptual framework, provides findings, identifies good practices, and examines emerging trends in AI policy, particularly on how countries are implementing the five recommendations to policy makers contained in the OECD AI Principles. The report builds both on the expert input provided at meetings of the OECD.AI Network of Experts working group on national AI policies that took place online from February 2020 to April 2021 and on the EC-OECD database of national AI strategies and policies. As policy makers and AI actors around the world move from principles to implementation, this report aims to inform the implementation of the OECD AI Principles. This report is also a contribution to the OECD AI Policy Observatory.
  • 16-June-2021

    English

    Knowledge co-creation in the 21st century - A cross-country experience-based policy report

    The importance of knowledge co-creation – the joint production of innovation between industry, research and possibly other stakeholders, such as civil society – has been increasingly acknowledged. This paper builds on 13 cross-country case studies and co-creation experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic to characterise the diversity of knowledge co-creation initiatives and identify lessons for policy. The paper identifies a strong rationale for policy to support knowledge co-creation because the benefits of successful co-creation initiatives outweigh the initial co-ordination costs. Moreover, knowledge co-creation initiatives can contribute to democratising innovation. Successful initiatives engage all stakeholders and have effective governance and management structures. They also have clearly defined ownership and use rights of the collaborations’ outcomes and benefit from favourable conditions to operate, including temporary staff mobility and institutional set-ups that facilitate collaboration and effective communication among participants.
  • 11-June-2021

    English

    Laying the foundations for artificial intelligence in health

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to make health care more effective, efficient and equitable. AI applications are on the rise, from clinical decision-making and public health, to biomedical research and drug development, to health system administration and service redesign. The COVID-19 pandemic is serving as a catalyst, yet it is also a reality check, highlighting the limits of existing AI systems. Most AI in health is actually artificial narrow intelligence, designed to accomplish very specific tasks on previously curated data from single settings. In the real world, health data are not always available, standardised, or easily shared. Limited data hinders the ability of AI tools to generate accurate information for diverse populations with potentially very complex conditions. Having appropriate patient data is critical for AI tools because decisions based on models with skewed or incomplete data can put patients at risk. Policy makers should beware of the hype surrounding AI and identify and focus on real problems and opportunities that AI can help address. In setting the foundations for AI to help achieve health policy objectives, one key priority is to improve data quality, interoperability and access in a secure way through better data governance. More broadly, policy makers should work towards implementing and operationalising the OECD AI Principles, as well as investing in technology and human capital. Strong policy frameworks based on inclusive and extensive dialogue among all stakeholders are also key to ensure AI adds value to patients and to societies. AI that influences clinical and public health decisions should be introduced with care. Ultimately, high expectations must be managed, but real opportunities should be pursued.
  • 8-June-2021

    English

    OECD Digital Education Outlook 2021 - Pushing the Frontiers with Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain and Robots

    How might digital technology and notably smart technologies based on artificial intelligence (AI), learning analytics, robotics, and others transform education? This book explores such question. It focuses on how smart technologies currently change education in the classroom and the management of educational organisations and systems. The book delves into beneficial uses of smart technologies such as learning personalisation, supporting students with special learning needs, and blockchain diploma credentialing. It also considers challenges and areas for further research. The findings offer pathways for teachers, policy makers, and educational institutions to digitalise education while optimising equity and inclusivity.
  • 3-June-2021

    English

    Evolving public-private relations in the space sector - Lessons learned for the post-COVID-19 era

    Where is the space sector headed? How can public and private actors work together to solve mutual challenges and sustain growth? What is the role of government programmes and funding? This paper addresses these and other questions by reviewing the evolving relationship between public and private actors in the space sector over the last two decades, based on case studies from North America, Europe and Asia. It provides new evidence for navigating the post-Covid-19 era, notably by exploring the range of government roles in supporting space sector innovation and expansion, from funder and developer of space programmes to partner and enabler of private sector growth.
  • 31-May-2021

    English

    OECD Secretary-General's Report to Ministers 2021

    This edition of the OECD Secretary-General's Report to Ministers outlines the main achievements of the OECD in 2020, notably the Organisation’s efforts to help manage the COVID-19 crisis and pave the way towards a stronger, more inclusive, resilient and green recovery. It describes the OECD’s work across major policy areas, with a focus on health, employment, inequalities, economics and tax, education, and the environment, among others. The report outlines the activities of the Secretary-General and his office, as well as those of OECD directorates, the Secretariats of Entities within the OECD family and OECD Social Partners. The OECD works on finding evidence-based solutions to a range of social, economic and environmental challenges, promoting 'Better Policies for Better Lives'. The OECD is one of the world’s largest and most trusted sources of comparable statistical data and research. The OECD serves as not only a pathfinder for new narratives and new initiatives at the global level, but also as a ‘do’ tank ready to support members and partners with our data, standards and evidence-based policy advice.
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