Agricultural policy monitoring and evaluation

Getting the agricultural policy mix right

Efficient agricultural policies are essential to meeting increasing demand for safe and nutritious food in a sustainable way. While growth in demand for food, feed, fuel and fibres presents significant opportunities for agriculture, government policies must address challenges such as increasing productivity growth, enhancing environmental performance and adaptation to climate change, and improving resilience of farm households to market shocks brought on by weather and other unforeseen circumstances.

Policy monitoring and evaluation provides needed evidence for governments to ensure that their agri-food policies address these challenges well. Efficient policies clearly separate targeted measures that provide income support to farm households in need, from measures that support increased farm productivity, sustainability, resilience and overall profitability.

Domestic support policies have changed over the years

Countries have substantially altered their agricultural trade and domestic support policies over the past two decades. In some countries, support provided to farmers has become more decoupled from production – meaning that many farmers no longer receive payments for producing a specific commodity – and instead has begun to target environmental outcomes. But in some developed countries, support remains high and linked to production, while some emerging economies have also significantly increased policy interventions that distort production decisions. In both cases, support could have been better targeted at public services that benefit producers, consumers and society overall.

The OECD monitors the extent to which policies adapt to growth, resilience and sustainability needs

The OECD publishes an annual Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation report, which reviews developments in agricultural policies and provides up-to-date estimates of government support to agriculture for all OECD members and the European Union as a whole, plus key emerging economies. The 2021 edition includes Argentina, Brazil, People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, and Viet Nam. The report puts special emphasis on reviewing initial policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic relevant to the agro-food sector, and highlights both developments in the productivity and sustainability performance of agricultural production and policy changes affecting this performance.

Prior to being included in the annual report, countries undergo an in-depth country review which discusses in detail strengths and weaknesses of both the country’s agricultural sector and its agricultural institutions and policy environment. The subsequent partnership for the annual report builds on these studies to follow agricultural policy developments. Countries also provide important peer review of both policy data and analyses in the report.

Data underpinning the report come from the OECD producer and consumer support estimates (PSE and CSE) database. The OECD uses a standardised methodology to create this set of agricultural support indicators that allow for comparison of agricultural support between countries, and over time. This methodology is continuously updated and refined to maintain and improve its relevance in a changing policy environment.

The OECD is also a founding member and key partner in the International Organisations Consortium for Measuring the Policy Environment for Agriculture, which is working to develop a harmonised and consolidated database of well-documented agricultural support indicators for an even larger set of countries.

Policymakers need to create a better and more coherent policy environment to meet food demand sustainably

Agricultural policy packages need to be both coherent and efficient to enable the sector to develop its full potential and achieve key public policy objectives. The sector is facing a number of challenges related to meeting future demands for food, fuel, fibre and eco-services in a more sustainable manner in the context of a changing climate.

The latest Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation report shows that the 54 countries studied provided USD 720 billion annually to support their agricultural sectors during the 2018-20 period, while at the same time a small number of the countries implicitly taxed their producers to the tune of USD 104 billion per year by keeping prices below world levels. Two-fifths of the support to the sector is provided through policies that artificially maintain domestic farm prices above international levels, while another USD 66 billion are payments linked to output or the unconstrained use of variable inputs. All these policies are distorting production decisions and markets particularly strongly. What is more, these policies obstruct efforts to make agriculture more productive, sustainable and resilient, and only a small 17% of all support went to general services such as research and development or infrastructure, which are needed to equip the agricultural sector for future challenges.

OECD research and analysis on this subject over past 30 years gives rise to the following key policy recommendations:

  • Remove existing policy dis-incentives to increasing productivity, sustainability and resilience.
  • Re-allocate public spending towards ensuring the availability of public goods an services that benefit producers, consumers and society overall.
  • Encourage collaboration on knowledge generation and transfer between public and private actors – nationally, regionally and internationally.
  • Draw on the full range of economic instruments, including information, education, regulation, payments and taxes, in pursuit of environmental and climate change goals.
  • Streamline risk management policies by clearly defining the limits between normal business risks, risks for which market solutions exist or can be developed, and catastrophic risks requiring public engagement.
  • Improve understanding of the overall financial and well-being situation of farm households to design farm-income support measures targeting those in need.
  • Develop coherent policy packages that can address the many opportunities and challenges confronting the sector and farm households.
  • Shift responses to the COVID-19 pandemic from from temporary relief measures towards deeper investments in the long term resilience of the food and agriculture sectors.

Read the full 2021 report on the OECD iLibrary, or access previous editions and country studies.

Learn more about the OECD's work on government support.

Latest update

Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2021

This annual report monitors and evaluates agricultural policies spanning all six continents, including OECD members, the European Union, and key emerging economies. It is a unique source of up-to date estimates of support to agriculture using a comprehensive system of measuring and classifying support to agriculture.


Compare your country: support for agriculture

The compare your country tool allows you to access individual country profiles that provide an overview of support to agriculture.


Data and tables

The full suite of agricultural support data are updated each year, and can be accessed on OECD.Stat.

Access the data

To increase the transparency and accessibility of the OECD indicators of support to agriculture, a considerable portion of the PSE/CSE database is now incorporated into a single Excel spreadsheet, the PSE Browser. The spreadsheet uses the PivotTable function, which allows the user to filter the data to obtain information by country, category, labels, commodity and policy measure.

Country data

Access individual policy measures and selected relative indicators data for each country (xls) with definitions and sources for each (pdf). Please use Microsoft Edge browser to access the content.


About the producer and consumer support estimate

Agricultural policies aim to address a wide range of issues, from assisting farmers to achieve adequate incomes to providing sufficient food at reasonable prices for consumers, and from improving the sector’s resilience to weather, market or other shocks to ensuring food safety and improving the environmental performance. To help governments better understand how much and in what form support is provided, the OECD created a set of indicators that express policy measures with numbers in a comparable way across time and between countries.

While the main agricultural support indicators used in our analysis are defined below, you can find a complete guide to all definitions and methodology in our online PSE Manual.

The Producer Support Estimate (PSE) indicator estimates the annual monetary value of gross transfers from consumers and taxpayers to agricultural producers, measured at the farm-gate level, arising from policy measures that support agriculture, regardless of their nature, objectives or impacts on farm production or income.

Complementing this indicator, the Consumer Support Estimate (CSE) reflects the annual monetary value of gross transfers to consumers of agricultural commodities, measured at the farm gate level, arising from policy measures that support agriculture, regardless of their nature, objectives or impacts on consumption of farm products.

On the other hand, the General Services Support Estimate (GSSE) is used to estimate the annual monetary value of gross transfers arising from policy measures that create enabling conditions for the primary agricultural sector through development of private or public services, and through institutions and infrastructures regardless of their objectives and impacts on farm production and income, or consumption of farm products. It includes policies where primary agriculture is the main beneficiary, but does not include any payments to individual producers. GSSE transfers do not directly alter producer receipts, costs or consumption expenditures.

Taken together, the Total Support Estimate (TSE) provides an overall estimate of the annual monetary value of all gross transfers from taxpayers and consumers arising from policy measures that support agriculture, net of associated budgetary receipts, regardless of their objectives and impacts on farm production and income, or consumption of farm products.

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