Guerre en Ukraine

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NOUVEAU : Reconstruire l’Ukraine

Reconstruire l’Ukraine en renforçant la gouvernance régionale et municipale

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Reconstruire l'Ukraine

#URC2022 : Conférence sur la reprise en Ukraine

4 et 5 juillet 2022, Suisse

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Comment les systèmes d’enseignement et de formation professionnels peuvent soutenir l’Ukraine

1er juillet 2022

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02/12/2022
Prior to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, Ukraine had made significant progress in implementing ambitious regional development and decentralisation reforms. These reforms resulted in the creation of 1 469 amalgamated municipalities, the establishment of an elaborate multi-level regional development planning framework, as well as a significant increase in local public service delivery, and public funding for regional and local development. However, the reforms faced a number of challenges, many of which have been significantly exacerbated by Russia’s war against Ukraine. These challenges include increasing regional economic, demographic and well-being disparities, a fragmented regional development funding framework, as well as marked discrepancies in municipal administrative, human resource and fiscal capacity. This report presents an in-depth analysis of Ukraine’s progress in implementing its multi-level governance reforms and explores the role of subnational governments in disaster management. From there, it recommends how Ukraine, together with international partners, can use multi-level governance, regional development and decentralisation to support subnational reconstruction and recovery to address urgent humanitarian needs, rebuild local economies and communities, and strengthen their resilience.
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02/12/2022
Cette note met en évidence la manière dont les réformes de développement régional et de décentralisation en Ukraine, adoptées après la révolution de Maïdan de 2014, ont contribué à la résilience des régions et municipalités du pays après la guerre d'agression de la Russie contre l'Ukraine. Basé sur le rapport de l'OCDE Rebuilding Ukraine by Reinforcing Regional and Municipal Governance (Reconstruire l'Ukraine en renforçant la gouvernance régionale et municipale), cette note démontre également la manière dont les réformes de gouvernance à plusieurs niveaux en Ukraine, mises en œuvre après 2014, peuvent servir de levier pour une reconstruction et une reprise efficaces au niveau infranational. Enfin, elle présente des recommandations concrètes sur la manière dont les décideurs politiques peuvent s’appuyer sur l’expertise locale et renforcer les capacités au niveau infranational pour concevoir et mettre en œuvre des projets de reconstruction et en suivre les progrès, ainsi que contribuer à un développement régional et local durable à plus long terme.
25/11/2022
As foreign direct investment (FDI) can help mitigate the repercussions of climate change, understanding what factors attract energy FDI is important. A large share of energy FDI originated from outside the energy sector, and given that renewable power FDI also comes from outside the energy sector, it is worthwhile to examine if drivers behind this type of FDI differ from what encourages investment by firms operating within the energy sector. This paper demonstrates that renewable energy FDI has been increasing, while FDI in fossil fuels is potentially slowing down. Results of the empirical analysis show that both the broader investment conditions and the strength of climate policies are vital for ensuring the favourable environment for renewable energy FDI, but the extent to which these factors impact investment decisions varies depending on where the investors come from: greenfield investors from outside the energy sector seem less responsive to the climate mitigation policies of host countries, whereas their location choices are tightly linked to the broader investment conditions in the destination economies.
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25/11/2022
L’invasion de l’Ukraine par la Russie a provoqué la plus grande crise de déplacements forcés de l’histoire récente, avec, parmi les personnes fuyant le pays, une forte proportion d’enfants et de jeunes. Les épreuves et les traumatismes que les réfugiés ukrainiens ont pu connaître risquent d’entraîner divers problèmes de santé mentale qui, s’ils ne sont pas pris en charge, pourraient avoir des répercussions durables sur leur développement. Les établissements scolaires des pays d’accueil jouent un rôle essentiel pour répondre aux besoins des apprenants réfugiés : ils leur offrent en effet un espace dans lequel ils peuvent se sentir en sécurité, poursuivre leur scolarité et accéder à des services de soutien psychosocial. Ils servent également de lieu d’apprentissage social et émotionnel, ce processus étant indispensable non seulement pour aider les élèves à surmonter les difficultés rencontrées pour s’adapter à une autre culture, mais aussi pour faciliter leur intégration dans l’éducation et dans la société. La présente note, en s’appuyant sur des exemples concrets de politiques et de pratiques, examine comment les systèmes éducatifs des pays d’accueil peuvent favoriser le bien-être social et émotionnel des élèves ukrainiens
15/11/2022
Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine is demonstrating the new role of commercial space systems in crisis management. The improved availability of commercial satellite data and signals is contributing to the quality and resilience of government systems, with telecommunications and follow-ups of military actions and impacts on the ground for civilians. But the war has also revealed vulnerabilities of space infrastructure and in global supply chains. It also unleashed a series of new threats, notably unanticipated third-party uses of satellite data and disruptions of civilian telecommunications. Furthermore, the current geopolitical situation raises questions about the future of international co-operation in space activities, at a time when it is urgently needed to collectively manage the use of orbital resources. This policy note includes OECD recommendations for policy responses to improve the resilience of space infrastructure, manage access to and use of data and signals and ensure long-term sustainability of space activities.
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04/11/2022
For decades, governments have relied on space systems for intelligence gathering and satellite connectivity in remote areas, but today’s situation marks a distinct break with the past. Extended coverage, advances in digital technologies and, importantly, free and/or commercial availability of space products allow many new uses by both government and non-government actors. This brings important benefits for users and citizens, but also leads to new challenges in terms of data management, infrastructure and supply chain resilience, and international co-operation. This paper uses illustrations from the war in Ukraine to highlight recent developments in the sector, placing them in a broader context of digitalisation and government space investments. It discusses the growing importance of space technologies for society and provides policy options and resources from other strains of OECD work.
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04/11/2022
This policy response reflects on how policy actions can shape the future of Ukraine’s science system and contribute to post-war recovery. It draws on several OECD indicators and highlights the challenge of “brain drain” as a structural problem that is aggravated by Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine. It then makes the case for international co-ordination on talent circulation and exchange to prevent the irreversible loss of scientific expertise for key industries and the education of future generations in Ukraine. The policy response further argues that OECD countries can put in place new and strengthened scientific relationships with Ukraine, while also implementing temporary measures to assist both displaced scientists and those remaining in their posts under very challenging conditions.
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03/11/2022
This paper provides an overview of how the Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine illustrates immediate threats posed by disinformation, as well as governance responses to countering it. It focuses on disinformation in relation to the Russian armed aggression of Ukraine, including actors, tools and narratives used to justify the invasion and maintain support for the war. The paper also identifies government efforts to counter the spread of disinformation, including efforts to ensure the spread of accurate content, promote international co-operation, and support civil society and media actors to build resilience to the spread of false and misleading content.
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13/10/2022
This in-depth review of the energy policies of Kazakhstan follows the same format used by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to review member countries. It was conducted under the auspices of the EU4Energy programme, which is being implemented by the IEA and the European Union, along with the Energy Community Secretariat and the Energy Charter Secretariat.Kazakhstan has made ambitious commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the role of renewables in its energy supply, but dependence on large reserves of inexpensive domestic coal and a lack of flexible generating capacity make these a challenge. Oil continues to provide much of the country’s export earnings and government revenue, while many oil-importing countries have pledged to reduce consumption of fossil fuels, and most oil exports currently transit the Russian Federation. Low domestic energy prices are a social priority for the government, but have made it difficult to promote energy efficiency and stimulate commercial production of gas for the domestic market.This report assesses the energy sector and related challenges facing Kazakhstan and proposes policy recommendations to improve sector governance, energy efficiency and security of supply.
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13/10/2022
Moldova is largely dependent on fossil fuel and electricity imports, with the vast majority of its natural gas imports coming from the Russian Federation. Moldova has made considerable efforts to diversify their supply sources and increase the security of both electricity and gas supply. Further integration with Europe for both gas and electricity imports is ongoing as Moldova prioritises moving away from Russian sources of energy. The March 2022 emergency synchronisation with ENTSO-E, triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, has pushed Moldova closer to full electricity trade with Europe. Since Moldova signed an Association Agreement with the European Union in 2014, it has been working to adopt core EU legislation. Moldova’s National Energy Strategy for 2030 reflects this work, with key government priorities including: ensuring the security of energy supply; further developing competitive markets and integration on a regional and European level; and ensuring the sustainability of the energy sector while mitigating the effects of climate change. Increasing the share of renewables in Moldova’s energy mix remains key to meeting the country’s priorities as it aims to enhance regional and European integration.This report assesses the energy sector and the related challenges facing Moldova, and it proposes policy recommendations to improve energy security, support the development of free and competitive energy markets, and accelerate its transition to a more sustainable, clean and efficient energy system.
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04/10/2022
This note assesses the immediate impact of Russia’s large-scale aggression against Ukraine on global insurance markets. It addresses direct impacts of the war on the industry, such as losses arising in certain specialty lines and restrictions on the provision of insurance services, and indirect impacts, such as increased macroeconomic and financial market volatility, that in turn affects insurers.
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04/10/2022
The large-scale aggression by Russia against Ukraine drastically changed how and which administrative services are delivered to its citizens. Physical facilities and communications infrastructure have been damaged or occupied in many areas of the country. This created the need to adapt or propose new ways of providing administrative services and the creation of entirely new services. The system of service delivery has had to be relaunched, adapted and even transformed. During the first days of the war there were almost no services. After three months the system had adapted to wartime conditions. The Ukrainian system of administrative service delivery has proved itself resilient in terms of safety and security, and in terms of responses to the new needs of the population. The simplification, deregulation and digitalisation efforts of the government will continue after the war.
29/08/2022
In the first half of 2022, many electricity markets continued to experience skyrocketing prices, particularly in Europe, reflecting deep uncertainties over both fossil fuel supplies and the economic outlook. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine shattered any hope of energy prices declining in the near term following the strong increases seen in the second half of 2021. In Europe, the situation prompted heightened ambitions and strengthened policies to advance clean energy transitions and reduce dependency on fuel imports. But in the short term, it also resulted in a partial return to coal-fired electricity generation. Sluggish economic growth is expected to dampen global electricity demand growth in 2022 and 2023 to less than half the rate seen in 2021. Despite gas-to-coal switching and low nuclear power plant availability in Europe, global electricity sector emissions may decline slightly in 2022 and 2023 – reflecting a combination of slowing power demand and displacement of fossil fuels by renewables.This July 2022 update of the IEA Electricity Market Report presents our latest forecasts for global electricity demand, supply and emissions through 2023. In light of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, we also provide a special focus on the situation in Europe, discussing recent developments and future plans.
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29/08/2022
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has exacerbated the tightening supply of natural gas underway since mid-2021, further pushing up prices for consumers and leading to fuel switching and demand destruction. It also casts longer-term uncertainty on market prospects for natural gas, especially in developing markets where it was to play a central role in energy transitions.Natural gas demand is expected to decline in 2022 and remain subdued up to 2025. Europe’s surging pursuit of LNG to phase out Russian pipeline supply and limited global LNG export capacity additions raise the risk of prolonged tight markets. Faster development and implementation of clean energy transition policies, especially in mature gas markets, would ease price competition and help emerging markets access supplies that can contribute to short-term improvements in carbon intensity and air quality.This new issue of the Gas Market Report offers a medium-term forecast and analysis of global gas markets to 2025, as well as a review of recent developments in major regional gas markets during the first half of 2022.
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29/08/2022
Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions: From Today’s Challenges to Tomorrow’s Clean Energy Systems is a new report by the International Energy Agency that looks at how nuclear energy could help address two major crises – energy and climate – facing the world today. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the disruptions in global energy supplies that it has fuelled have made governments rethink their energy security strategies, putting a stronger focus on developing more diverse and domestically based supplies. For multiple governments, nuclear energy is among the options for achieving this. At the same time, many governments have in recent years stepped up their ambitions and commitments to reach net zero emissions. Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions expands upon the IEA’s landmark 2021 report, Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector. It does so by exploring in depth nuclear power’s potential role as a source of low emissions electricity that is available on demand to complement the leading role of renewables such as wind and solar in the transition to electricity systems with net zero emissions.In this context, the report examines the difficulties facing nuclear investment, particularly in advanced economies, in the areas of cost, performance, safety and waste management. It considers the additional challenge of meeting net zero targets with less nuclear power than envisioned in the IEA Net Zero Roadmap, as well as what kind of cost targets could enable nuclear power to play a larger role in energy transitions. For countries where nuclear power is considered an acceptable part of the future energy mix, the new report identifies the potential policy, regulatory and market changes that could be implemented in order to create new investment opportunities. It also looks at the role of new technologies, particularly small modular reactors, and their potential development and deployment.
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29/08/2022
Russia’s unprovoked invasion of Ukraine has had a dramatic impact on the global energy system. Russia was the world’s largest oil and natural gas exporter in 2021, and energy markets have been thrown into turmoil, with major energy security and supply risks worldwide.Substantial gas resources currently are being produced that do not make it to market because they are lost to flaring and leaks across the oil and gas supply chain. This report estimates that nearly 210 billion cubic metres (bcm) of natural gas could be made available to gas markets by a global effort to eliminate non-emergency flaring and reduce methane emissions from oil and gas operations.If countries that currently export natural gas to the European Union were to implement these two measures, they could increase gas exports by more than 45 bcm using existing infrastructure, equivalent to almost one third of Russian gas exports to the EU in 2021.
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08/08/2022
Depuis février 2022, les capacités de récolte et d’exportation de produits végétaux de l’Ukraine sont affaiblies par l’agression lancée contre elle par la Russie. D’après les résultats présentés dans cette synthèse, si les capacités d’exportation de l’Ukraine devaient être réduites à néant et les exportations russes de blé, baisser de 50 %, les prix internationaux du blé pourraient augmenter de 34 % durant la campagne 2022/23.
04/08/2022
Les graves perturbations qui affectent les marchés mondiaux suite à l’offensive russe en Ukraine ont révélé des failles dans la sécurité de l’approvisionnement en matières premières critiques pour la production industrielle et la transition verte. Ces faiblesses des chaînes d'approvisionnement sont la conséquence des restrictions à l’exportation, des dépendances bilatérales, de l’absence de transparence et de la persistance d'asymétries du marché, notamment la concentration de la production dans un petit nombre de pays. Les pays touchés par ces faiblesses ont la possibilité de diversifier les approvisionnements grâce à un élargissement de la production et à un accès aux réserves de matières premières critiques connues.
03/08/2022
Compte tenu du nombre sans précédent et des caractéristiques uniques des Ukrainiens ayant fui après l’invasion de leur pays par la Russie – 50 % sont des enfants –, les établissements scolaires des pays d’accueil peinent à accroître leurs capacités et à répondre aux besoins des nouveaux élèves réfugiés. Pour les enfants, le retour à l’école peut être synonyme de sécurité, de stabilité et d’accès à des possibilités appropriées de développement des compétences qui leur éviteront d’être davantage pénalisés dans leur vie future. En plus de l’accueil à brève échéance des élèves réfugiés dans les écoles et les classes, les pays devront s’employer à promouvoir l’intégration de ceux qui resteront plus longtemps sur leur sol. Évaluation précoce, programmes scolaires individualisés et aide à l’apprentissage de la langue feront partie des grands axes de l’enseignement pour les élèves réfugiés ukrainiens. Dans la mesure où l’on ne sait pas combien de temps ces élèves resteront dans leurs pays d’accueil, les systèmes éducatifs devront faire preuve de souplesse pour répondre à leurs besoins et leur permettre d’acquérir les compétences nécessaires pour les préparer à la vie active à leur retour en Ukraine. En outre, des échanges coordonnés avec les dirigeants ukrainiens et la possibilité pour les élèves de rester en contact avec les programmes scolaires, la langue et la culture de leur pays constituent des éléments importants, car de nombreux réfugiés pourraient souhaiter retourner en Ukraine à l’avenir. En résumé, c’est une approche holistique qu’il s’agira d’adopter pour répondre à l’ensemble des besoins éducatifs, sociaux et psychologiques des élèves réfugiés ukrainiens.
03/08/2022
L’invasion de l’Ukraine par la Russie a mis lourdement à contribution les établissements scolaires et les enseignants des pays d’accueil. De fait, les besoins des élèves réfugiés ne se limitent pas au développement des compétences scolaires, il leur faut aussi de l’aide pour s’intégrer dans la société d’accueil et favoriser leur bien-être. C’est en grande partie aux enseignants des pays d’accueil qu’il incombe de soutenir ces élèves, alors qu’ils n’ont pas nécessairement été formés pour gérer des enfants qui ne parlent pas leur langue et qui peuvent avoir besoin d’aide pour surmonter leurs traumatismes. Ces enseignants doivent être aidés à s’adapter au mieux à l’évolution rapide de la situation et aux besoins des élèves réfugiés, moyennant entre autres une étroite collaboration avec les chefs d’établissement et les personnels auxiliaires et une formation appropriée. De plus, les pays devront faire appel à des enseignants ukrainiens en cas de pénurie de personnel. Cela aidera à donner aux élèves réfugiés un sentiment de familiarité, à la fois en termes de langue et de programme scolaire, à mesure qu’ils passent à la langue et au programme du pays d’accueil. En outre, cette stratégie peut se révéler gratifiante pour les enseignants réfugiés, qui se donneraient ainsi une nouvelle motivation tout en stabilisant leur situation financière. La mise en œuvre des politiques et l’affectation des ressources sur la base d’éléments probants tirés de stratégies éprouvées peuvent permettre de renforcer les capacités et d’apporter aux enseignants le soutien nécessaire, et il existe des exemples de bonnes pratiques dans les pays de l’OCDE.
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Crédits photos : OECD; Shutterstock; Enfant sur une balançoire: Shutterstock/Drop of Light
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