Guerre en Ukraine

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L’OCDE lance un programme-pays pour l’Ukraine sur quatre ans

Administration publique en Ukraine : Rapport d’évaluation SIGMA

Gros plan : Échanges, sanctions et revenu des ménages

La réponse initiale de l’OCDE en 2022

OCDE-Ukraine : Un partenariat renforcé

L’avenir : Soutenir la reconstruction et le redressement de l’Ukraine

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06/02/2024
This report analyses the performance of public administration in Ukraine through a set of standard indicators based on the Principles of Public Administration. The Principles set out what good public governance entails in practice and outline the main requirements to be followed by countries during the European Union (EU) integration process. They address the preconditions for a good public administration (good laws, policies, institutional capacity and procedures) and how an administration performs in practice. In its 2014 and 2018 Enlargement Strategies, the European Commission highlighted public administration reform as one of three “fundamentals first” areas of the EU enlargement process. Given the European Council decision of December 2023 to open accession negotiations with Ukraine, this report provides data and recommendations on how Ukraine could better meet the standards set by the Principles. The report follows up on the 2018 SIGMA Baseline Measurement Report and provides comparative information on reform successes and remaining challenges. It covers the six thematic areas of the Principles (strategic framework of public administration reform, policy development and co-ordination, public service and human resource management, accountability, service delivery and public financial management). The report provides indicator values and comparison of overall trends across the administration.
20/12/2023
The paper analyses the current system of environmental taxation and environmental expenditure in Ukraine, identifies issues in the way environmental tax policy is currently designed and implemented and highlights main areas where environmental taxation and expenditure could be improved. It uses data on environmental tax revenue and budgets from expenditure reports of the State Treasury Service of Ukraine over the period 2010 - 2020. Where available, preliminary data for 2021 were also included. The paper aims to support the government of Ukraine in reforming environmental taxation and public funding for environmental protection. Ukraine’s Post-War Recovery and Reconstruction Plan outlines ambitious plans for reform, including in the environmental domain. It envisions restructuring the current environmental tax system, expanding it to energy and transport and harmonising it with that of the European Union. It also foresees an analytical study systematising current taxes and payments in line with Eurostat classification standards. This paper can support these efforts.
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10/11/2023
Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine has had profound effects on the maritime sector. It directly disrupted maritime activities in the Black and Azov seas, causing the suspension of Ukrainian port operations and agricultural exports. Although an export corridor temporarily resumed activities, the termination of the agreement in July 2023 continues to affect Ukrainian shipping. International sanctions against Russia and Belarus have notably targeted shipowners and shipbuilders, restricting Russian ships' access to OECD ports. These sanctions have also halted orders for Russian ship owners in OECD countries, reducing new orders and vessel completions in Russian shipyards. While global seaborne trade and ship demand remain relatively unaffected, the war has prompted longer-term impacts such as altered trading routes, changes in energy demand and costs, potential implications for maritime decarbonisation, and an increase in "dark fleet" vessels.
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03/11/2023
Amid the millions of refugees forced to flee Ukraine, an estimated 10-17% have previously worked in the education sector. The expertise and qualifications of Ukrainian educators can be harnessed in host countries to provide vital support for Ukrainian students who are navigating unfamiliar educational systems, while also offering them continued career opportunities in their chosen field and supporting the local education system. Drawing insights from recent OECD survey results, this brief provides an overview of the efforts initiated by OECD countries to employ Ukrainian teachers, while identifying the obstacles which persist such as qualifications recognition, training gaps, and language barriers. Measures such as streamlining recruitment processes, fostering flexibility in qualification recognition, and providing tailored training for teachers and assistants can help optimise their potential.
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03/11/2023
The influx of highly qualified refugees from Ukraine has posed unique challenges for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) policies and practices in host countries. Analysing recent survey results, this policy brief provides an overview of the diverse RPL measures countries across the OECD have implemented in order to ensure a swift continuation of learning for Ukrainian refugee students. From extending application deadlines to international cooperation on qualifications information sharing, the policy landscape is evolving rapidly to ensure these highly skilled individuals can be included effectively into new educational environments.
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03/11/2023
Le déplacement des ukrainiens dans les pays de l’OCDE s’inscrivant dans la durée, une aide supplémentaire à l’intégration est nécessaire pour parvenir à des résultats adéquats, mais la nature et la portée de cette aide peuvent ne pas correspondre aux pratiques d’intégration habituelles car il est probable que de nombreux réfugiés voudront vouloir rentrer chez eux lorsque la situation le permettra. Au vu de ces besoins apparemment contradictoires, adopter une approche de l’intégration visant un double objectif permettrait de prévoir à la fois la possibilité d’un séjour d’une durée indéterminée dans le pays d’accueil et celle d’un retour des réfugiés en Ukraine, tout en s'attachant à minimiser les éventuels obstacles au retour.
30/06/2023
This market study analyses Ukraine’s electricity sector from a competition perspective. It provides a detailed description and assessment of the regulatory framework within which the Ukrainian electricity markets operate, as well as an analysis of the obstacles to competition in the wholesale and retail markets. This report includes recommendations to address the underlying causes of ineffective competition that, if implemented in the recovery phase following Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine, can contribute to achieving a well-functioning, competitive electricity sector.
24/06/2023
Les Profils de coopération au développement de l’OCDE synthétisent les statistiques officielles de l’aide publique au développement (APD) et d’autres financements du développement par bailleur. Ils analysent les tendances par géographie et par secteur, les allocations aux organisations multilatérales et à la société civile, aux priorités transversales comme le genre, l’autonomisation des femmes, l’environnement et le climat, ainsi que la mobilisation des financements privés. Les Profils couvrent les flux émis par les principaux bailleurs internationaux publics et privés, dont les pays membres de l’OCDE et de son comité d’aide au développement (CAD), de nombreux pays non-membres et de fondations privées. Ils donnent également un aperçu des priorités stratégiques, des dispositifs institutionnels et des systèmes d’évaluation de chaque bailleur. Les Profils de coopération au développement sont publiés annuellement et représentent une composante essentielle du Rapport Coopération pour le Développementde l’OCDE. Depuis plus de 50 ans, ce Rapport nourrit le CAD et plus largement la communauté internationale en faits, analyses et idées, afin de promouvoir la réforme des politiques de coopération, l’innovation et les meilleures pratiques. Chaque édition annuelle éclaire un thème d’importance particulière pour le financement et les politiques de coopération au développement. Le rapport principal comprend des versions abrégées des profils de chaque bailleur et présente les grandes tendances à travers des infographies.
30/05/2023
Depuis le début de la guerre d’agression menée par la Russie contre l’Ukraine, la majorité des personnes réfugiées sont des femmes et des enfants. Cette situation pose des problèmes d’intégration d’une nature particulière. Dans la plupart des pays d’accueil, environ 70 % des réfugiés ukrainiens adultes sont des femmes et la plupart d’entre elles sont venues accompagnées de leurs enfants, dont environ 30 % sont mineurs. La plupart des pays de l’OCDE favorisent l’intégration socioéconomique des réfugiées ukrainiennes à l’aide de leurs systèmes existants d’intégration. Toutefois, les mesures d’intégration ont souvent été conçues en se basant sur des profils différents de compétences et une composition femmes/hommes différente des flux de réfugiés, et risquent donc d'affaiblir les résultats à long terme. Dans les pays de l’OCDE, certaines mesures ciblées prometteuses ont été mises en place pour favoriser l’intégration socioéconomique des réfugiées ukrainiennes. Ces mesures comprennent des services de conseil, des possibilités de travail en réseau, des formations et des stages, ainsi que des activités d'entraide à l'échelon local destinées aux femmes.
21/04/2023
Les destructions d'écoles, les déplacements de population ou les fermetures d'écoles signifient que les enfants en Ukraine ont connu diverses perturbations dans leur expérience éducative. Les interventions visant à réduire les variations des niveaux d'apprentissage des élèves doivent accompagner les efforts de reprise de l'apprentissage et de fourniture d'une éducation de haute qualité pour tous. Cette note met l'accent sur les interventions académiques que l'Ukraine pourrait mettre en place pour soutenir la reprise de l'apprentissage. Elle examine tout d'abord les stratégies d'évaluation des niveaux de compétences des élèves et d'identification des pertes d'apprentissage potentielles dans le contexte actuel. Elle se concentre ensuite sur les stratégies académiques que le ministère de l'éducation peut mettre en œuvre à court et à moyen terme pour aider les élèves à récupérer les opportunités d'apprentissage perdues, notamment en adaptant les stratégies d'instruction et les pédagogies aux besoins individuels, en adaptant le temps d'instruction, en assurant la flexibilité des programmes et en permettant des parcours d'apprentissage fluides au sein du système scolaire. La note conclut en proposant une série de réponses politiques susceptibles d'améliorer l'efficacité à long terme des stratégies de reprise de l'apprentissage en Ukraine.
19/04/2023
The current energy crisis calls for energy saving measures to accompany long-term technical and structural solutions. However, a range of barriers makes it hard for consumers to change their energy consumption. Changing behaviour is the result not only of responses to prices but also of expectations, habits, and biases. Policy makers should factor in these behavioural aspects when designing energy saving measures. The choice of message that policymakers send to consumers, how and when the information is provided to households and through which channels can make a difference in changing consumption behaviours. Moreover, it is crucial that the right incentives and policies are in place to ensure that behavioural changes can effectively take place. The effectiveness of energy saving measures should also be monitored to gauge evolutions in behaviours and identify solutions to behavioural barriers.
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28/03/2023
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has had devastating impacts on the people of Ukraine. The consequences stemming from the war have imperilled the world's economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic and are reshaping and disrupting global supply chains, with ramifications for food security, energy, and other critical sectors. The war has also put a spotlight on the role of businesses operating in the region, facing heightened challenges in maintaining responsible business conduct (RBC) in high-risk settings. In this highly dynamic context, businesses should consider risks of being linked or contributing to adverse impacts on people, planet and society via their operations or business relationships. This note takes stock of how Russia’s war against Ukraine has had an impact on and shaped considerations for RBC.
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01/03/2023
Policy makers are increasingly grappling with the stability implications of global value chains (GVCs), as widespread supply shortages following the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian Federation’s large-scale aggression against Ukraine have disrupted the economic recovery and contributed to high inflation. This paper provides a tool to assess vulnerabilities in GVCs by drawing a detailed map of dependencies based on new indicators constructed from the OECD Inter-Country Input-Output tables. The key findings are as follows. First, GVC dependencies increase with both the size of foreign exposures and the length of foreign value chains. Second, in some industries, such as the automotive and ICT industries, vulnerabilities from high GVC dependence are amplified by high geographic concentration of suppliers or buyers. Third, the People’s Republic of China is the most critical choke point in GVCs across a broad range of industries, both as a dominant supplier and as a dominant buyer.
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21/01/2023
Russia’s war against Ukraine is causing a humanitarian, social and economic crisis for the Ukrainian people. The consequences of this full-scale military invasion are disrupting the global supply of commodities, sharply increasing food and energy prices, and threating the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with established commercial and financial ties with the economies of Russia and Ukraine appear to be particularly vulnerable. Assessing the Impact of Russia’s War against Ukraine on Eastern Partner Countries investigates the exposure of Eastern Partner countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) to the economic shocks caused by the war, and in particular through the impact that the conflict is having on inflation, migration, remittances, investment and trade. This report is published as part of the multi-country project “EU4Business: From Policies to Action – phase 2”, implemented in the Eastern Partnership with the financial support of the European Union within the EU4Business initiative.
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20/01/2023
Amidst the recovery from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine has resulted in new challenges to the global economy and to international trade. This report relies on detailed trade data to assess the impact of these two overlapping shocks on international trade and supply chains. In February 2022, global trade was approaching pre-Covid levels in absolute terms, but with a different product and geographical composition resulting in a continued sense of tension in the trading system. Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine has added a new dimension of challenges as it has led to deliberate radical interruptions of trade linkages between Russia, Ukraine and many industrialised economies, with significant repercussions on prices of key commodities in the energy and agricultural sectors.
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06/01/2023
Even though much uncertainty remains regarding the length of stay of Ukrainian refugees in host countries, continued fighting has dimmed prospects of an early return and the issue of labour market integration is becoming increasingly pertinent. Finding gainful employment commensurate with refugees’ educational and professional qualifications supports new arrivals in becoming self-sufficient and boosts the local economy. It also enables them to use and possibly further enhance their skills, which is crucial for the future recovery of Ukraine. This policy response outlines the existing evidence on the socio-economic profiles and labour market integration of Ukrainian refugees in OECD countries as well as relevant policies to further support labour market integration. Findings suggest that the labour market inclusion of Ukrainian refugees has been faster compared to other refugee groups. That said, much of the early employment uptake by Ukrainian refugees has been concentrated in low-skilled jobs, thus skills mismatches are widespread.
05/01/2023
Less than two years after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia’s illegal, unprovoked and unjustifiable war of aggression against Ukraine has triggered the biggest military confrontation in Europe since World War II. Many OECD countries have reacted to Russia’s aggression by providing military and humanitarian aid to Ukraine and by imposing economic sanctions on Russia, which has accentuated supply chain disruptions, especially in the energy sector. A combination of these supply shocks with a demand shock caused by expansionary fiscal and monetary policies to tackle the pandemic has created inflationary pressures on a scale not seen in decades. Central banks around the world are acting to fulfil their price stability mandates by increasing interest rates and by engaging in quantitative tightening (primarily the selling of government bonds to reduce central bank balance sheets), all of which put pressure on borrowing costs at a time when governments are engaging in expansionary fiscal policy to alleviate the impact of inflation. The objective of this policy note is to examine the main consequences of this challenging environment for the fiscal stance of different levels of governments. These include the weakening outlook for government revenues in times of high expenditure pressures from a more rapid energy transition as well as high borrowing costs.
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02/12/2022
Prior to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, Ukraine had made significant progress in implementing ambitious regional development and decentralisation reforms. These reforms resulted in the creation of 1 469 amalgamated municipalities, the establishment of an elaborate multi-level regional development planning framework, as well as a significant increase in local public service delivery, and public funding for regional and local development. However, the reforms faced a number of challenges, many of which have been significantly exacerbated by Russia’s war against Ukraine. These challenges include increasing regional economic, demographic and well-being disparities, a fragmented regional development funding framework, as well as marked discrepancies in municipal administrative, human resource and fiscal capacity. This report presents an in-depth analysis of Ukraine’s progress in implementing its multi-level governance reforms and explores the role of subnational governments in disaster management. From there, it recommends how Ukraine, together with international partners, can use multi-level governance, regional development and decentralisation to support subnational reconstruction and recovery to address urgent humanitarian needs, rebuild local economies and communities, and strengthen their resilience.
02/12/2022
Cette note met en évidence la manière dont les réformes de développement régional et de décentralisation en Ukraine, adoptées après la révolution de Maïdan de 2014, ont contribué à la résilience des régions et municipalités du pays après la guerre d'agression de la Russie contre l'Ukraine. Basé sur le rapport de l'OCDE Rebuilding Ukraine by Reinforcing Regional and Municipal Governance (Reconstruire l'Ukraine en renforçant la gouvernance régionale et municipale), cette note démontre également la manière dont les réformes de gouvernance à plusieurs niveaux en Ukraine, mises en œuvre après 2014, peuvent servir de levier pour une reconstruction et une reprise efficaces au niveau infranational. Enfin, elle présente des recommandations concrètes sur la manière dont les décideurs politiques peuvent s’appuyer sur l’expertise locale et renforcer les capacités au niveau infranational pour concevoir et mettre en œuvre des projets de reconstruction et en suivre les progrès, ainsi que contribuer à un développement régional et local durable à plus long terme.
02/12/2022
European Neighbourhood East countries have been actively engaged in improving service delivery for citizens and businesses for some time. Some have opted for flagship initiatives (often with large-scale, one-stop shop solutions), some for digitalisation of services, while some have taken an incremental approach towards the service delivery modernisation process. This comparative paper outlines the state of play in the design and delivery of public administrative services in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Public administrative services cover the vast array of interactions with (and within) government: making enquiries, applications, registrations and payments, and receiving information, documentation, decisions and funds. These contacts allow service users (citizens, businesses and non-governmental organisations) to exercise rights, access entitlements, execute obligations and achieve ambitions. As well as the description and analysis of the general service delivery framework(s), institutional set-up and practical implementation, this paper presents a comparative analysis of a set of life events and highlights inspiring practices from the different countries.
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Crédits photos : OECD; Shutterstock; Enfant sur une balançoire: Shutterstock/Drop of Light
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