Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation
Artificial Intelligence in Science
Challenges, Opportunities and the Future of Research
The rapid advances of artificial intelligence (AI) in recent years have led to numerous
creative applications in science. Accelerating the productivity of science could be
the most economically and socially valuable of all the uses of AI. Utilising AI to
accelerate scientific productivity will support the ability of OECD countries to grow,
innovate and meet global challenges, from climate change to new contagions.
This publication is aimed at a broad readership, including policy makers, the public,
and stakeholders in all areas of science. It is written in non-technical language
and gathers the perspectives of prominent researchers and practitioners. The book
examines various topics, including the current, emerging, and potential future uses
of AI in science, where progress is needed to better serve scientific advancements,
and changes in scientific productivity.
Additionally, it explores measures to expedite the integration of AI into research
in developing countries.
A distinctive contribution is the book’s examination of policies for AI in science.
Policy makers and actors across research systems can do much to deepen AI’s use in
science, magnifying its positive effects, while adapting to the fast-changing implications
of AI for research governance.